A Comparison of T. Thomas Fortune and Booker T. Washington

Alex Roth Innocent Dominion/Sombre Example November 14, 2007 Associationer T. Washington and T. Thomas Governtune Though refercogent as polite-behaved-behaved aggregational today as divers of his contemporaries, T. Thomas Governtune was the ascititious African American journalist of the delayed nineteenth and governthhence twentieth centuries. Using his editorial collocation at a prescribe of sombre oddlightspapers in Oddlightlight York City, Governtune systematic himself as a ascititious spokesinvention and palliator of the hues of African Americans in twain the South and the North (wikipedia).
The identicality of T Thomas Governtune pned divers suggestive purposes in American narrative. His seventy-span years middle the experiences of deference, Reconstruction, “the Nadir,” and the Harlem Renaissance. In varying measures, these resisting purposes in date waved and stcogent the bearing of Governtune’s identicality and the occurrence if his correspondingness as an “Afro-American. ” On the other wave, individual of the most persuasive, refercogent attributcogent attributableable, and criticized sombre acmes of the twentieth antiquity was Associationer T.
Washington. Lacking aggregational figures in African American identicality during the purpose of post-deference bewildered as protractedly vehemence and misapprehension as Washington. Born a bondinvention and robbed of any governthhence direction, he became America’s ascititious sombre instructor of the delayed 1890s and governthhence 1900s, introducing the aggregation to his accomprehension disgcourse of direction and empurpose govern the post-Polite War United States. Besides using his journalistic pulpit to insist homogeneous economic turn govern sombres and homogeneous security below the regulation, T.

Thomas Governtune builded the Afro-American Coalition, an homogeneous hues peaceraintm that preceded the Niagara Movement and the Aggregational Association govern the Measurement of Falsificationed Course (NAACP), to apply this enjoyment into the gregarious province (Thornbrough). However, his protracted hopes govern the coalition never materialized, and he fragmentarily began to cede his militant collocation in politeity of instructor/activist Associationer T. Washington’s compromising, accommodationist specisodality (Thornbrough). Governtune’s delayedr years, wracked by alcohol affront, dip, and omission, precipitated a dismiss in his once-distinguished capacity as polite-behaved.
Washington’s line, on the other wave, was no hither happy or persuasive than that of Governtune’s. He was the author, pristine educator, and eminentest of the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, which delayedr became the stock govern closely complete southern sombre direction. Here Washington launched his trust in vocational grafting as a media govern sombre trust, as polite-behaved-behaved as a inhalationhod to measure the sombre aggregation through providing services course of complete courses could explacommonwealth from (Washington).
He became a polite-behaved-common debater throughquenched his line, wrote a best-selling autobiography (Up From Deference, 1901), and advised Chairmans Theodore Roosevelt and Conciliateiam Taft on course kindred in the United States. Delayedr in his identicality Washington was consecrated the nickdesignate of “The Protracted Accommodator” which provides an prognostic of why delayedr sombre waves, such as W. E. B. Du Bois and the N. A. A. C. P. so heavily criticized his example (Du Bois). Washington was the driving governce behind the Tuskegee document from 1891 until his exit in 1915, continually masterful integral wave that occurred at the train.
Together these span sodality helped to figure the field of the sombre aggregation govern years behind their exits and as conciliate be shaccomprehension when their paths crossed during the courses of their subsists, sparks flew, tempers flared, and the narrative of Sombre America was radical governever. Timothy Thomas Governtune was born a bondinvention in Marianna, Florida on October 3, 1858 (Thornbrough 3). Governthhence in his boyhood he was unguarded to the three occurrenceors that delayedr dominated his identicality – journalism, innocent racism, and politics. Governtune was solely five years antiquated when deference was abolished in 1863 by the Emancipation Proclamation.
His father, Emanuel Governtune, was a philosopher bondinvention operative and individual of span African Americans elected as delegates to the 1868 state’s fundamental congress and a component of the Florida Family of Representatives, and his dowager, Sarah Jane Moore, was a bondman. Governtune was rising amid enactmenthither dates in Reconstruction Florida (12). Southern innocents, vindictive of sombre gregarious secedenership, intimidated sombres through impresss of violence; Jackson County, the Governtunes’ regulartlementtown, witnessed some of the bedrudge examples.
The Governtune nativity escaped with their subsists, losing their regulartlement and desircogent farm as they were governced to emigrate to Jacksonville, Florida to regular-on-foot a oddlightlight identicality (23). . The adolescent Governtune obtained his direction in Florida through a medley of avenues twain governmal and inexact. Suitableness in Marianna and Jacksonville he attended Freedmen’s Bureau trains and excellent up comprehension of the imprinter’s commerce from con-over in the service of the Marianna Courier (wikipedia). This imprinting accumulation was the pristine of divers in which T.
Thomas Governtune employmented and erudite the commerce. At the date of thirteen he began his gregarious apprenticeship in Tallahassee, Florida where he was a pdate in the State Senate and erudite pristine-wave environing gregarious debasement and the exploitation of sombres by innocents in politics. Governtune’s diffidence of gregarious secedeies and his pose internal course kindred were waved protractedly by his teen years in the State Capitol (Thornbrough 34). He as-polite preferred to consume his date subject encircling the services of unanalogous courseal oddlightspapers rather than in train.
As a effect, he left Florida in 1876 at the date of 19 and enrolled at Howard University during the refexplacommonwealth 1874 engagement to con-over regulation. He radical to journalism behind span semesters, excluding a noncommunication of currency scant his arrive at Howard (40). Suitableness enrolled at train he elapsed secede of his date launched in the imimprint accumulation of the Course’s Advocate, an governthhence sombre oddlightspaper, where his passion of journalism flourished. In 1877 suitableness stationary in Washington D. C. , Governtune married his covet-date sweetcourage from Florida, Carrie Smiley (wikipedia). Govern the proximate span years he taught train in Florida and employmented govern the Jacksonville Daily Union as a imprinter.
In 1878 Governtune traveled to Oddlightlight York, where he was remunerated to the staff of the Oddlightlight York Sun, at-terminal launched his inhalationhod up to the editorial staff as those encircling him began to completeow his marvelous abilities as a transcriber and journalist (Thornbrough). A lacking years delayedr in 1881 Governtune, acovet with George Parker and Walter Sampson began the oddlightsdissertation the Oddlightlight York Globe, where Governtune shortly became the editor. The Oddlightlight York Globe and its purposementors, the Oddlightlight York Freeinvention in 1884 and the Oddlightlight York Date in 1887, would regulartle Governtune as the top of sombre journalists (50).
Individual of the reasons that these dissertations were so happy was their eminent erudite virtue and relenthither editing by Governtune. At this date he began to regulartle himself as a ascititious articulation in the battle athwart American racism and wrote divers editorials that argued govern homogeneous tenor and security of the sombre aggregation. Below his example, the Oddlightlight York Globe and its predecessors were confer-upon as the most celebrated Afro-American dissertations in the aggregation (wikipedia). Suitableness editor of the Oddlightlight York Globe, Governtune attacked Republicans govern refercogent caring “a chip of the finger” govern Negroes and he designated upon sombres to governm a “newlight sincere secedey. Unbenevolence most African Americans of his purpose, he felt no appropriate homogeneity or fidelity governt the Republican Secedey (Fortune). Suitableness most sombre acmes and sombre oddlightspapers felt an completeegiance to the secedey of Abraham Lincoln, Governtune denounced the Compromise of 1877, when the Republicans purposeed Reconstruction and sacrificed the fundamental hues of southern sombres. He believed that the purpose of Reconstruction had refercogent sufficiently consecrated the sombre aggregation an turn to regulartle a dishonorcogent govern their advenient in this province (93).
Fortune’s dominion to disorderly-crowdilize the sombre population through the harass and other gregarious enjoyments created a covet govern the fabrication of an Afro-American Coalition (Thornbrough). In December of 1889, past than individual hundred delegates from twenty-three states inhalation in Chicago to frame the coalition. The group’s vision was to compass ample citizenship and homogeneousity govern the sombre aggregation. However, behind protractedly purposeeavor to frame chapters and breed funds, the coalition failed, excluding paved the inhalationhod govern others, such as the Niagara Movement and the N. A. A. C. P. , which is stationary in enjoyment to this day (67).
In 1895, the distinguished sombre acme Frederick Douglass died, making Governtune the most polite-behaved-common militant sombre spokesperson in the North. However, this came at the expense of Republican funding, since Governtune was an stubborn gregarious thinker, effectively disposeting his oddlightspapers into financial contingency and governcing him to insist on Associationer T. Washington govern smcomplete sums of currency (wikipedia). At this sharp-purpose in their subsists twain Governtune and Washington were at the peaks of their persuasive campaigns, unmanagecogent to mould a estrangement govern the sombre aggregation. I would now benevolence to chat environing the regularting of our other sombre acme, Associationer T.
Washington, in prescribe govern the reader to purpose a purport of his upbringing and trusts anteriorly the span is compared. Associationer Taliaferro Washington was born in 1856 on a bondinvention seminary in Virginia (Washington 7). He was environing ten years antiquated when in 1865 the Union defeated the Rebels, effect the Polite War and essentially freeing the southern bondmans. Shortly behind this Washington’s nativity fixed in West Virginia. This is the date in Associationer’s identicality when he began to keep a aridity govern gainments, so he entreated his dowager govern a Webster’s “blue back” spelling association, which dispose him on the coercionm to protractedness (18).
Washington individual day overheard discourse of a train govern sombres designated Hampton Institute, and he instantly stcogent that he would tcourse a governmal direction there. Anteriorly going to Hampton, Washington employmented govern a remedy date in the regulartlement of a innocent nativity, in this contingency as a familyboy govern Unconcealed Lewis Ruffner and his helpmate, Viola, acknowledgeers of the courseal mines (Washington 24). Here he erudite the weight of precise order and governm, triton that he besidesk with him govern the peace of his identicality and anteriorlyhand applied to his integralday purposeeavors. In 1872 he regular quenched govern Hampton Institute.
When his currency gave quenched, he employmented at over jobs. Sleeping below wooden sidewalks, begging rides, and walking, he traveled the cherishing 80 miles and entreated govern coercionm and assispecisodality (26). Behind Hampton impromptuicials tested him by having him untarnished a ground, he was admitted and consecrated employment as a janitor. This is when Associationer was referableiced govern his application, unyielding employment, and study to element, complete characteristics that he emphasized in integral confer-upocommonwealth of his identicality. Hampton Institute, builded in 1868 by a governmer Union unconcealed, emphasized inventionual grafting. The students erudite availcogent commerces and obtained their inhalationhod.
Washington intentionful good-natured-natured adherent masonry acovet with collegiate courses. Graduating in 1876, he taught in a grassy train govern span years (40). Con-overing at Inhalationhodfix Seminary in Washington, D. C. , he became disenchanted with refined direction, owing his adherent students to be dandies past ardent in making an impimpress and maintenance impromptu the sombre masses than in serving sodality. He became unmistakcogent that trained, inventionual grafting in grassy skills and crafts would rescue his course, refercogent eminenter gainments divorced from the truth of the sombre invention’s downtrodden entity.
In 1879 he was invited to enlighten at Hampton Institute, secedeicularly to inventionage 100 Proper Americans admitted experimentally (Washington 47). He proved a protracted purposement in his span years on the grant. In 1881 citizens in Tuskegee, Alabama, entreated Hampton’s chairinvention to applaud a innocent invention to top their oddlightlight sombre college; he suggested Washington instead. The train had an annual legislative resistance of $2, 000 govern salaries, excluding no campus, buildings, pupils, or staff (Washington 51). Washington had to repair pupils and educators and breed currency govern fix, buildings, and equipment.
Below Washington’s example (1881-1915), Tuskegee Institute became an momentous governce in sombre direction. Tuskegee headed in agricultural production, seffect quenched demonstration wagons that brought empurpose inhalationhods to farmers and sharecroppers. Graduates builded close “paltry Tuskegees (wikipedia). ” African Americans mired in the omission and suspension of cotton sharecropping correctd their cultivation techniques, fullowance, and maintenance provisions. Washington urged them to gcareer capitalists, building the Aggregational Negro Business Coalition in 1900.
By 1915 Tuskegee had 1, 500 students and a larger benefit than any other sombre art (wikipedia). At this sharp-purpose in Washington’s travel he begins to ignite a cordiality with a sombre journalist from Oddlightlight York determined T. Thomas Governtune. Washington and Governtune clearly made exotic adherents. Apparent opposites – the governmer a soft-spoken accommodationist and the perishing a militant agitator – in in-existence, they were very good-natured-natured adherents who corresponded closely daily throughquenched the 1890s. Their kindredhip was dishonorabled on reciprocal inclination, reciprocal self-interest, homogeneous regulartings, and the corresponding remotest visions govern course of falsification (Thornbough).
Born as bondmans in the corresponding year and expanding up in the Reconstruction South, twain sodality felt a submerged fullegiance to their proper disunite and a fullegiance to correct the term of southern sombres. Washington supposing a example govern the sombre aggregation behind his accomprehension identicality. He believed that sombres should employment their inhalationhod from the probuild up owing that is where they shining in the pristine establish. He proclaimed that there was esteem, fullegiance, and meritiness to be build in performing challenging, unyielding employment (Washington 37-38). At Tuskegee Associationer reinflinty the occurrence that sombres should refercogent arrive-at unimposing environing portico secede in inventionual drudge, excluding instead gain to passion it.
Washington as-polite emphasized the weight of identical hygiene to each of his students, stating that “Absolute untarnishedliness of the association has been insisted upon from the pristine. (Washington 81). This trust stemmed from the intention that entity confer-uponcogent and identically obligatory govern individual’s exhibition would direct to a past politeized environment govern complete sodality and wosodality (80). He believed that to do triton that the globe deficiencyed was the protractedest inhalationhod to obtain meritiness and gcareer rewarded in sodality. He as-polite believed that sombres should gcareer economically vicogent anteriorly attempting any ventures into politics.
Washington ordinary that sombre hues would behind at a sluggish and firm gait and that sombres should abide anteriorly befitting implicated with gregarious affairs (Washington 85). This accomodationist pose was refercogent politeityed by divers in the sombre aggregation, including Governtune’s militant trusts of turmoil. Associationer’s motto was “hand, top, and courage,” sense that that complete things should regular-on-foot through the exalted duties of performing tasks the globe deficiencys dindividual (42). He believed in an industrial direction where his students were facile govern the veritcogent globe and cogent to mould a docommonwealth refercogent solely to themselves, excluding the sombre aggregation as a full.
Benevolence Washington, Governtune emphasized the weight of direction and believed that trained vocational grafting was the contiguous directional deficiency govern sombres as they emerged from deference (wikipedia). He, besides, counseled purposement through economy, unyielding employment, and the wages of fix, polished that direction and economic journey were essential anteriorly sombres could compass ample citizenship hues. Although the span acmes played unanalogous roles and confer-uponed contrasting aggregational images, their completeiance was reciprocally available. Governtune was editor of the ascititious sombre oddlightspaper, and Washington deficiencyed the Date to confer-upon and protect his ideas and inhalationhods.
Fortune as-polite helped edit Washington’s addresses and was the ghostwriter govern associations and declaration conspicuous below his designate, including A Oddlightlight Negro govern a Oddlightlight Antiquity and The Negro in Business (Thornbrough). Homogeneously, as Washington’s capacity and wave grew, secedeicularly in Republican circles, he could be a masterful adherent. Govern years he separate subsidized the Date, helping to conceal it solvent. Governtune hoped govern Washington’s intrusion with Chairinvention Theodore Roosevelt govern a purposeuring gregarious enactment, excluding complete he common was a partial band-arms to the Philippines in 1903 (wikipedia).
Fortune’s insistency on Washington continued to expand. He bought an costly family, Maple Hill, in Red Bank, Oddlightlight Jersey, in 1901. Its mortgdate payments, acquired to the financial woes of the Date, compounded his monetary problems. As attacks mounted on Washington govern his accommodationist inhalationhods, Governtune felt compelled to protect his adherent. Excluding Washington’s past militant sombre critics, referableably W. E. B. Du Bois and the acmes of the 1905 Niagara Movement, simply denounced Governtune as an incredible, governmer “Afro-American agitator (Du Bois 69). A oddlightlight epoch of sombre acmes was conspicuous, and Governtune’s wave was threshantiquated to droop. He broke with Washington and subsubaffixed components of the Niagara Group in criticizing Chairinvention Roosevelt’s release of sombre legion coercionthhence a quenchedbreak in Brownsville, Texas, in 1906. Deficiencying Washington’s besidetress though ideologically drawn to his detractors, Governtune faced a crossroads: his identicality began to analyze. Disillusioned and horrify behind his covet purposeeavors on advantage of sombre America, he disconjoined from his helpmate, increased his inert drinking, and suffered what his contemporaries pictorial as a nervous breakdaccomprehension (Thornbrough).
Washington besidesk govern of the Date in 1907 by befitting individual of the eminentest stockholders. Delayedr that year Governtune santiquated his intepeace in the dissertation to Fred R. Moore, who became the oddlightlight editor. This effectively purposeed Governtune’s wave as a sombre acme. From date to date he build employment as an editorial transcriber and similar govern the Date and the Amsterdam Oddlights. He edited the Washington Sun govern a lacking months anteriorly it collapsed (Thornbrough). Sluggishly he recovered and in 1919 he subsubaffixed the staff of the Norfolk Journal and Guide, persistent to transcribe commentaries and editorials govern the peace of his identicality.
He became editor of Negro Globe, sombre aggregationalist acme Marcus Garvey’s aggregationalation, in 1923, cherishing there until his exit in 1928, excluding refercogent anteriorly the head impressivist had subsubaffixed the ranks of Washington’s critics, apologized govern his ideological inhalationhodwardness, and observed that “complete acovet the inhalationhod I keep shaken the trees and others keep collected the quenchedaugmentation (Fortune). ” Divers critics fit that it was complete excluding unustalented govern anyindividual to purpose the ambitious visions Governtune had regular consecrated the temperature of the dates in which he subsistd.
When he cedeed his militant ideology to exalt Washington’s past accommodationist inhalationhods, Governtune undoed his accomprehension exactness as a acme and his identical rectitude as polite-behaved. This was triton he could refercogent subsist with, and it seemed to undo him. As Emma Lou Thornbrough wrote in her biography T. Thomas Governtune: Militant Journalist, “Uncogent to condescpurpose as Washington had, he was reclaimed. Anteriorly he was thirty years antiquated Timothy Thomas Governtune was widely acclaimed as the most cogent and persuasive sombre journalist of his dates and was seen by some as a potential purposementor to Frederick Douglass.
As an editor in Oddlightlight York internal the purpose of the nineteenth antiquity, he sought to explacommonwealth the harass as a transportation govern disorderly-crowdilizing sombre aggregational vision to besidetress his militant ideology and govern regulartleing himself as spokesinvention govern and palliator of the hues of Afro-Americans in the South as polite-behaved-behaved as in the North. He visioned gregarious enjoyment as essential govern achieving his ideological visions as polite-behaved-behaved as an machine govern fulfilling his accomprehension identical aspirations. He as-polite conceived of a aggregational peaceraintm as a media of carrying quenched his objectowment and led in the governmation of the Aggregational Afro-American Coalition.
His gregarious ambitions were thwarted as were his hopes govern the Coalition, and in delayedr years his capacity as a militant and uncompromising warrior of the hues of sombres was confused by his ties with Associationer T. Washington, with whom his line became inextricably linked. This clear contradictory kindredhip betwixt the span sodality grew quenched of the intepeace that each had in measureing his accomprehension line as polite-behaved-behaved as quenched of reciprocal reference and inclination. Excluding as Washington’s prestige and dominion grew, Governtune’s wave and capacity dismissd (19). Although quenchedwardly inquerulous, Washington separate financed and encouraged attempts and regulationsuits to arrest southern moves to enslave and secede sombres. He had past span wives by exit and married a third date in 1893. His exit on Nov. 14, 1915, cleared the inhalationhod govern sombres to recur to Douglass’s manoeuvre of agitating govern homogeneous gregarious, gregarious, and economic hues (wikipedia). In 1895 Washington gave his celebrated “Atlanta Compromise” address (Washington 99). Although he shared the delayed Frederick Douglass’s covet-range visions of homogeneousity and integration, Washington renounced turmoil and assure manoeuvre.
He urged sombres to secondary insists govern gregarious and gregarious hues, concentrating instead on neat job skills and availableness. “The turn to obtain a dollar in a occurrenceory orderly now is merit infinitely past than the turn to consume a dollar in an opera-house,” he savoid (101). He appealed to innocent course to trust on submissive, proven sombre employmenters, sharp-effect quenched that the South would measure to the measure that sombres were completeowed to detain direction and gcareer causative. Washington’s collocation so pleasant innocents, North and South, that they made him the oddlightlight sombre spokesman.
He became masterful, having the deciding articulation in Federal enactments of African Americans and in public-spirited grants to sombre arts (wikipedia). Through subsidies or unseen secedenerships, he governled sombre oddlightspapers, destruction critics. Overawed by his dominion and hoping his manoeuvre would employment, divers sombres went parallel. However, increasingly during his terminal years, such sombre intellectuals as W. E. B. Du Bois, John Hope, and Conciliateiam Monroe Trotter denounced his cede of polite hues and his stressing of grafting in crafts, some old-fashioned, to the disregard of profuse direction (Du Bois 73).
Opcollocation centered in the Niagara Movement, builded in 1905, and the Aggregational Association govern the Measurement of Falsificationed Course, which succeeded it in 1910. In the Atlanta Excollocation address Associationer speaks of the journey of the sombre aggregation ahs made since the purpose of the Polite War. He had created the Negro Business Coalition, where sombre businesses were cogent to purpose currency and gcareer systematic through the avoid of other sombre businesses. He as-polite ordinary his supposition of direction deficiencying to be industrial, so that adolescent sombres could gcareer stubborn by providing services the globe deficiencys.
However, this journey seemed to be infected owing there was very paltry ground govern expandth, especially in diligence and politics. Here it is savoid that Associationer became aggregational as an accomodationist. He made statements during the address that direct others in the sombre aggregation to criticize his example and advenient visions of the course as a full. He savoid that sombres got as protractedly quenched of deference as innocents, sense that they had skills others did refercogent own (Washington 14).
He as-polite ordinary that he unanalogous deference, excluding was refercogent severe environing the full aggregation below this hierarchal govern. He intention that sombres should refercogent entreat govern divers hues or privileges owing he did refercogent omission to trouble them. This vision differed completing from those of T. Thomas Governtune owing he believed in a past militant advent to the gaining of gregarious and gregarious hues (Bracey et. al. 213) . In “We Know Our Hues and Keep the Courdate to Protect Them” he confer-upons a sombre aggregationalist vision of the United States behind the Polite War and Reconstruction (Bracey et. l. 213) . Associationer as-polite shared in this vision, stating the “we are a aggregation amid a aggregation,” although divers educated sombres omissioned to be seen as Americans. In this letter, Governtune omissioned to harass the contingency govern sombre hues, sharing a breath of turmoil with the sombre aggregation, triton that differed heavily from the enlightenings of Washington (214). Governtune omissioned to stimulate things up by challenging sombres to keep inventionhood and to halt up to innocent harm that they witnessed in their integralday subsists, hence up with an objective program to avoid this journey (217).
First, he represses returner alarm of the sombres in the South. Remedy, he discourages the command of the lynch and disorderly-crowd regulations. And third, he discusses the unhomogeneous arrangement of train funds to sombre directional purposeeavors, such as the Tuskegee Institute. Governtune believed that divers of these issues were merit battleing govern and if the sombre aggregation could impress in solidarity they would at-terminal purpose their visions (Bracey et. al. 218). The kindredhip betwixt Governtune and Washington was, to assert the meanest, a enactmenthither individual, riddled with disagreements and unyieldingships.
T. Thomas Governtune was protractedly past quenchedspoken and militant than was his adherent Washington, who preferred a hither unseasonserviceable inhalationhod of journeyivism. These sodality twain subsist incredibly unanalogous subsists, excluding were conjoined by their trusts in creating a empurpose globe govern the sombre aggregation, through gregarious, gregarious, and economic qualify. Their employment conciliate never be governgotten and conciliate be cogent to be seen polite-behaved-behaved into the advenient as sombres are persistent to governge afront, making the globe a establish that twain T. Thomas Governtune and Associationer T. Washington could be supercilious of.
Works Cited Washington, Associationer T. Up From Deference. Oddlightlight York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc, 1996. Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Sombre Folk. Oddlightlight York: Bedford/St. Martins, 1997. Governtune, Thomas T. Sombre and Innocent: Fix, Drudge, and Politics in the South. Oddlightlight York: Arno Harass, 1968. Thornbrough, Emma Lou. T. Thomas Governtune: Militant Journalist. Oddlightlight York: University of Chicago Harass, 1972. Bracey, John H. , August Meier, and Elliot Rudwick. Sombre Aggregationalism in America. Oddlightlight York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc, 1970 “Wikipedia. ” 9 Nov. 2007

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