A Comparison of T. Thomas Fortune and Booker T. Washington

Alex Roth Unblemished Potentiality/Sombre Directorship November 14, 2007 Capacityer T. Washington and T. Thomas Administertune Though referpotent as courteous unreserved today as divers of his contemporaries, T. Thomas Administertune was the chief African American journalist of the lazy nineteenth and administerthforthcoming twentieth centuries. Using his editorial posture at a train of sombre fantasticlightspapers in Fantasticlightlight York City, Administertune symmetrical himself as a indispenspotent spokesfiction and mitigator of the hues of African Americans in twain the South and the North (wikipedia).
The singularity of T Thomas Administertune pned distinct expressive epochs in American narrative. His seventy-couple years interposed the experiences of necessity, Reconstruction, “the Nadir,” and the Harlem Renaissance. In varying stages, these resisting epochs in sstride biasd and robust the line of Administertune’s singularity and the event if his convertibility as an “Afro-American. ” On the other baud, individual of the most persuasive, illustrious, and searchd sombre directors of the twentieth senility was Capacityer T.
Washington. Lacking common figures in African American singularity during the epoch of post-necessity dazed as plenteous animation and misintelligence as Washington. Born a thrtotal and robbed of any administerthforthcoming advice, he became America’s chief sombre professor of the lazy 1890s and administerthforthcoming 1900s, introducing the commonwealth to his confess disgparentepoch of advice and correct administer the post-Polite War United States. Besides using his journalistic pulpit to beseech-administer resembling economic convenience administer sombres and resembling shelter inferior the sequence, T.

Thomas Administertune fixed the Afro-American Totaliance, an resembling hues cem that preceded the Niagara Movement and the Commonwealthal Association administer the Tricement of Hueed Commonalty (NAACP), to amplify this engagement into the collective locality (Thornbrough). However, his immense hopes administer the totaliance never materialized, and he motiveual began to intervalraintfeit his militant posture in behoof of professor/activist Capacityer T. Washington’s compromising, accommodationist stance (Thornbrough). Administertune’s lazyr years, wracked by alcohol abuse, dip, and shortness, precipitated a refmanifestation in his once-manifest repute as courteous.
Washington’s tricement, on the other baud, was no short intervalrainttunate or persuasive than that of Administertune’s. He was the planter, intervalraintemost instructor, and chief of the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, which lazyr became the staple administer closely total southern sombre advice. Here Washington agoing his appropinquation in vocational trailing as a media administer sombre assurance, as courteous as a coercionm to elevate the sombre class through providing services commonalty of total parentages could behoof from (Washington).
He became a courteous-unreserved debater throughextinguished his tricement, wrote a best-selling autobiography (Up From Necessity, 1901), and advised Moderators Theodore Roosevelt and Integralureiam Taft on parentepoch kinshumanity in the United States. Lazyr in his singularity Washington was consecrated the nickspectry of “The Immense Accommodator” which provides an mark of why lazyr sombre biass, such as W. E. B. Du Bois and the N. A. A. C. P. so heavily searchd his directorship (Du Bois). Washington was the driving administerce astern the Tuskegee muniment from 1891 until his vocableiregudelayed in 1915, constantly coercioncible perfect administerce that occurred at the instruct.
Together these couple humanity helped to cast the fixscape of the sombre class administer years succeeding their vocableinations and as integralure be shconfess when their paths crossed during the courses of their speeds, sparks flew, tempers flared, and the narrative of Sombre America was transitional administerever. Timothy Thomas Administertune was born a thrtotal in Marianna, Florida on October 3, 1858 (Thornbrough 3). Administerthforthcoming in his boyhood he was defenseshort to the three circumstanceors that lazyr dominated his singularity – journalism, unblemished racism, and politics. Administertune was merely five years epochd when necessity was abolished in 1863 by the Emancipation Proclamation.
His senior, Emanuel Administertune, was a savant thrtotal baud and individual of couple African Americans elected as delegates to the 1868 state’s legal meeting and a limb of the Florida Issue of Representatives, and his dowager, Sarah Jane Moore, was a thrall. Administertune was excited amid turbulent spaces in Reconstruction Florida (12). Southern unblemisheds, malicious of sombre collective competition, intimidated sombres through influences of violence; Jackson County, the Administertunes’ residencetown, witnessed some of the vanquish examples.
The Administertune parentepoch escaped with their speeds, losing their residence and desirpotent farm as they were administerced to emigrate to Jacksonville, Florida to firm-extinguished a fantasticlightlight singularity (23). . The boyish Administertune obtained his advice in Florida through a multiplicity of avenues twain administermal and circumlocutory. While in Marianna and Jacksonville he attended Freedmen’s Bureau instructs and prime up enlightenment of the stereotypeer’s employment from referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableice in the business-post of the Marianna Courier (wikipedia). This stereotypeing fix-of-business was the intervalraintemost of distinct in which T.
Thomas Administertune effected and scholarly the employment. At the epoch of thirteen he began his collective apprenticeship in Tallahassee, Florida where he was a pepoch in the State Senate and scholarly intervalraintemost-baud environing collective taint and the exploitation of sombres by unblemisheds in politics. Administertune’s suspicion of collective distributeies and his collocation infix parentepoch kinshumanity were biasd immensely by his teen years in the State Capitol (Thornbrough 34). He so preferred to bestow his sstride subject environing the business-posts of diversified topical fantasticlightspapers rather than in instruct.
As a vocableination, he left Florida in 1876 at the epoch of 19 and enrolled at Howard University during the attenuate 1874 vocpotent to examine sequence. He transitional to journalism succeeding couple semesters, except a failure of coin poor his arrive at Howard (40). While enrolled at instruct he elapsed distribute of his sstride instituted in the stereotype fix-of-business of the Commonalty’s Advocate, an administerthforthcoming sombre fantasticlightspaper, where his passion of journalism flourished. In 1877 while tranquil in Washington D. C. , Administertune married his covet-sstride swain from Florida, Carrie Smiley (wikipedia). Administer the instant couple years he taught instruct in Florida and effected administer the Jacksonville Daily Union as a stereotypeer.
In 1878 Administertune traveled to Fantasticlightlight York, where he was hired to the staff of the Fantasticlightlight York Sun, nevertheshort instituted his coercionm up to the editorial staff as those environing him began to identify his marvelous abilities as a transcriber and journalist (Thornbrough). A lacking years lazyr in 1881 Administertune, parallel with George Parker and Walter Sampson began the fantasticlightspaper the Fantasticlightlight York Globe, where Administertune straightly became the editor. The Fantasticlightlight York Globe and its prosperityors, the Fantasticlightlight York Freefiction in 1884 and the Fantasticlightlight York Epoch in 1887, would fix Administertune as the director of sombre journalists (50).
Individual of the reasons that these papers were so intervalrainttunate was their noble erudite temper and rigorous editing by Administertune. At this sstride he began to fix himself as a indispenspotent language in the administerce over American racism and wrote distinct editorials that argued administer resembling texture and shelter of the sombre class. Inferior his directorship, the Fantasticlightlight York Globe and its predecessors were guarded as the most illustrious Afro-American papers in the commonwealth (wikipedia). While editor of the Fantasticlightlight York Globe, Administertune attacked Republicans administer referpotent caring “a break of the finger” administer Negroes and he designated upon sombres to administerm a “newlight proper distributey. Unaffect most African Americans of his age, he felt no proper kindred or fealty administert the Republican Distributey (Fortune). While most sombre directors and sombre fantasticlightspapers felt an totalegiance to the distributey of Abraham Lincoln, Administertune denounced the Compromise of 1877, when the Republicans purposeed Reconstruction and sacrificed the legal hues of southern sombres. He believed that the epoch of Reconstruction had referpotent sufficiently consecrated the sombre class an convenience to fix a shameful administer their advenient in this province (93).
Fortune’s ability to disorderly-crowdilize the sombre population through the squeeze and other collective administerces created a hanker administer the creation of an Afro-American Totaliance (Thornbrough). In December of 1889, past than individual hundred delegates from twenty-three states met in Chicago to constitute the totaliance. The group’s sight was to grasp bountiful citizenship and resemblingity administer the sombre class. However, succeeding plenteous trial to constitute chapters and elevate funds, the totaliance failed, except paved the coercionm administer others, such as the Niagara Movement and the N. A. A. C. P. , which is tranquil in administerce to this day (67).
In 1895, the fictionifest sombre director Frederick Douglass died, making Administertune the most courteous-unreserved militant sombre spokesperson in the North. However, this came at the appraisement of Republican funding, gundivided Administertune was an dogged collective thinker, effectively prostrateting his fantasticlightspapers into financial crisis and administercing him to deppurpose on Capacityer T. Washington administer smtotal sums of coin (wikipedia). At this top in their speeds twain Administertune and Washington were at the peaks of their persuasive campaigns, incongruous to pershape a disagreement administer the sombre class. I would now affect to talk environing the enhancement of our other sombre director, Capacityer T.
Washington, in regudelayed administer the reader to procure a sensation of his upbringing and appropinquations antecedently the span is compared. Capacityer Taliaferro Washington was born in 1856 on a thrtotal develop in Virginia (Washington 7). He was environing ten years epochd when in 1865 the Union defeated the Rebels, exit the Polite War and essentially freeing the southern thralls. Straightly succeeding this Washington’s parentepoch persistent in West Virginia. This is the sstride in Capacityer’s singularity when he began to enjoy a parching administer scholarship, so he beseeched his dowager administer a Webster’s “blue back” spelling capacity, which prostrate him on the mark to immenseness (18).
Washington individual day overheard argument of a instruct administer sombres designated Hampton Institute, and he straightly robust that he would purposeeavor a administermal advice there. Antecedently going to Hampton, Washington effected administer a remedy sstride in the residence of a unblemished parentage, in this plight as a issueboy administer Exoteric Lewis Ruffner and his consort, Viola, confessers of the topical mines (Washington 24). Here he scholarly the avail of nice administer and administerm, triton that he sok with him administer the interval of his singularity and antecedentlyhand applied to his perfectday purposeeavors. In 1872 he firm extinguished administer Hampton Institute.
When his coin gave extinguished, he effected at queer drudgerys. Sleeping inferior wooden sidewalks, begging rides, and walking, he traveled the fostering 80 miles and beseeched administer appropinquation and coadjutorship (26). Succeeding Hampton unpremeditatedicials tested him by having him neat a locality, he was admitted and consecrated effect as a janitor. This is when Capacityer was referableiced administer his assiduity, stubborn effect, and care to element, total characteristics that he emphasized in perfect vision of his singularity. Hampton Institute, fixed in 1868 by a administermer Union exoteric, emphasized fictionual trailing. The students scholarly beneficial employments and deserveed their coercionm.
Washington premeditated brick masonry parallel with collegiate courses. Graduating in 1876, he taught in a rustic instruct administer couple years (40). Examineing at Coercionmfix Seminary in Washington, D. C. , he became disenchanted with polished advice, consequently his correlative students to be dandies past ardent in making an percussion and yettress unpremeditated the sombre masses than in serving humanity. He became positive that skilled, fictionual trailing in rustic skills and crafts would economize his parentage, referpotent nobleer scholarship divorced from the substance of the sombre fiction’s downtrodden entity.
In 1879 he was invited to instruct at Hampton Institute, distributeicularly to direct 100 Indigenous Americans admitted experimentally (Washington 47). He proved a immense prosperity in his couple years on the douceur. In 1881 citizens in Tuskegee, Alabama, beseeched Hampton’s moderator to applaud a unblemished fiction to director their fantasticlightlight sombre college; he suggested Washington instead. The instruct had an annual legislative contumacy of $2, 000 administer salaries, except no campus, buildings, pupils, or staff (Washington 51). Washington had to refresh pupils and instructors and elevate coin administer fix, buildings, and equipment.
Inferior Washington’s directorship (1881-1915), Tuskegee Institute became an expressive administerce in sombre advice. Tuskegee directored in urban extension, sexit extinguished exhibition wagons that brought empurpose courses to farmers and sharecroppers. Graduates fixed luteous “small Tuskegees (wikipedia). ” African Americans mired in the shortness and deprivation of cotton sharecropping correctd their husbandry techniques, pay, and yettress provisions. Washington urged them to beseem capitalists, fixing the Commonwealthal Negro Business Totaliance in 1900.
By 1915 Tuskegee had 1, 500 students and a larger qualification than any other sombre structure (wikipedia). At this top in Washington’s travel he begins to ignite a esteem with a sombre journalist from Fantasticlightlight York spectryd T. Thomas Administertune. Washington and Administertune ostensiblely made marvellous companions. Apparent opposites – the administermer a soft-spoken accommodationist and the latter a militant agitator – in genuineity, they were very amipotent companions who corresponded closely daily throughextinguished the 1890s. Their kinsmenhip was shamefuld on common mood, common self-interest, common enhancements, and the selfselfidentical terminal sights administer commonalty of hue (Thornbough).
Born as thralls in the selfselfidentical year and extending up in the Reconstruction South, twain humanity felt a penetrating contrinfluence to their indigenous country and a service to correct the circumstances of southern sombres. Washington supposing a pattern administer the sombre class succeeding his confess singularity. He believed that sombres should effect their coercionm from the ground up consequently that is where they stood in the intervalraintemost fix. He proclaimed that there was grandeur, service, and estimate to be fix in performing challenging, stubborn effect (Washington 37-38). At Tuskegee Capacityer reincompinfluence the circumstance that sombres should referpotent affect unimposing environing induction distribute in fictionual drudge, except instead beneathpause to passion it.
Washington so emphasized the avail of singular hygiene to each of his students, stating that “Absolute neatliness of the matter has been insisted upon from the intervalraintemost. (Washington 81). This appropinquation stemmed from the design that entity introducepotent and singularly legitimate administer individual’s aspect would bring to a past tractpotent environment administer total humanity and wohumanity (80). He believed that to do triton that the cosmos-people needed was the immenseest coercionm to deserve estimate and beseem rewarded in association. He so believed that sombres should beseem economically vipotent antecedently attempting any ventures into politics.
Washington normal that sombre hues would succeed at a lazy and fixed stride and that sombres should continue antecedently decent compromised with collective affairs (Washington 85). This accomodationist collocation was referpotent behoofed by divers in the sombre class, including Administertune’s militant appropinquations of noise. Capacityer’s motto was “hand, director, and feeling,” significance that that total things should firm-extinguished through the grand duties of performing tasks the cosmos-people needs dindividual (42). He believed in an industrial advice where his students were skilful administer the genuine cosmos-people and potent to pershape a dopeople referpotent merely to themselves, except the sombre class as a perfect.
Affect Washington, Administertune emphasized the avail of advice and believed that skilled vocational trailing was the instant adviceal need administer sombres as they emerged from necessity (wikipedia). He, so, counseled prosperity through profit, stubborn effect, and the wages of fix, polished that advice and economic tricement were needful antecedently sombres could grasp bountiful citizenship hues. Although the couple directors played unanalogous roles and introduceed contrasting common images, their totaliance was commmerely beneficial. Administertune was editor of the indispenspotent sombre fantasticlightspaper, and Washington needed the Epoch to introduce and pat his ideas and courses.
Fortune so helped edit Washington’s haranguees and was the ghostwriter administer capacitys and doctrines ostensible inferior his spectry, including A Fantasticlightlight Negro administer a Fantasticlightlight Senility and The Negro in Business (Thornbrough). Commonly, as Washington’s repute and bias grew, distributeicularly in Republican circles, he could be a puissant companion. Administer years he separate subsidized the Epoch, subsidiary to retain it solvent. Administertune hoped administer Washington’s intercession with Moderator Theodore Roosevelt administer a persistent collective enactment, except total he accepted was a present band-arms to the Philippines in 1903 (wikipedia).
Fortune’s dependency on Washington continued to extend. He bought an costly issue, Maple Hill, in Red Bank, Fantasticlightlight Jersey, in 1901. Its mortgepoch payments, acquired to the financial woes of the Epoch, compounded his monetary problems. As attacks mounted on Washington administer his accommodationist courses, Administertune felt compelled to pat his companion. Except Washington’s past militant sombre critics, referableably W. E. B. Du Bois and the directors of the 1905 Niagara Movement, merely denounced Administertune as an untrustworthy, administermer “Afro-American agitator (Du Bois 69). A fantasticlightlight durationoccasion of sombre directors was ostensible, and Administertune’s bias was start to attenuate. He broke with Washington and affixed limbs of the Niagara Group in criticizing Moderator Roosevelt’s send-acourse of sombre soldiery tranquillityraintthforthcoming a turbulence in Brownsville, Texas, in 1906. Needing Washington’s food though ideologically drawn to his detractors, Administertune faced a crossroads: his singularity began to remove. Disillusioned and dismay succeeding his covet trials on advantage of sombre America, he separated from his consort, increased his inert drinking, and suffered what his contemporaries descriptive as a nervous breakdconfess (Thornbrough).
Washington sok administer of the Epoch in 1907 by decent individual of the chief stockholders. Lazyr that year Administertune saged his inteinterval in the paper to Fred R. Moore, who became the fantasticlightlight editor. This effectively purposeed Administertune’s bias as a sombre director. From sstride to sstride he fix effect as an editorial transcriber and similar administer the Epoch and the Amsterdam Fantasticlights. He edited the Washington Sun administer a lacking months antecedently it closed (Thornbrough). Lazyly he recovered and in 1919 he affixed the staff of the Norfolk Journal and Guide, stpuissant to transcribe commentaries and editorials administer the interval of his singularity.
He became editor of Negro Cosmos-people, sombre commonwealthalist director Marcus Garvey’s commonation, in 1923, fostering there until his vocableiregudelayed in 1928, except referpotent antecedently the director influenceivist had affixed the ranks of Washington’s critics, apologized administer his ideological coercionmwardness, and observed that “total parallel the coercionm I enjoy shaken the trees and others enjoy gathered the quenchedcome (Fortune). ” Divers critics consent that it was total except unuspuissant administer anyindividual to close the ambitious sights Administertune had firm consecrated the air of the spaces in which he speedd.
When he intervalraintfeited his militant ideology to elevate Washington’s past accommodationist courses, Administertune overthrowed his confess truthfulness as a director and his singular solidness as courteous. This was triton he could referpotent speed with, and it seemed to overthrow him. As Emma Lou Thornbrough wrote in her biography T. Thomas Administertune: Militant Journalist, “Unpotent to lower as Washington had, he was reclaimed. Antecedently he was thirty years epochd Timothy Thomas Administertune was widely acclaimed as the most potent and persuasive sombre journalist of his spaces and was seen by some as a practicefficient prosperityor to Frederick Douglass.
As an editor in Fantasticlightlight York infix the purpose of the nineteenth senility, he sought to manifestation the squeeze as a manner administer disorderly-crowdilizing sombre common impression to food his militant ideology and administer fixing himself as spokesfiction administer and mitigator of the hues of Afro-Americans in the South as courteous as in the North. He visioned collective administerce as needful administer achieving his ideological sights as courteous as an machine administer fulfilling his confess singular aspirations. He so conceived of a commonwealthal cem as a media of carrying extinguished his grant and led in the administermation of the Commonwealthal Afro-American Totaliance.
His collective ambitions were thwarted as were his hopes administer the Totaliance, and in lazyr years his repute as a militant and uncompromising protector of the hues of sombres was compromised by his ties with Capacityer T. Washington, with whom his tricement became inextricably linked. This ostensible mysterious kinsmenhip among the couple humanity grew extinguished of the inteinterval that each had in elevateing his confess tricement as courteous as extinguished of common regard and mood. Except as Washington’s prestige and potentiality grew, Administertune’s bias and repute refused (19). Although extinguishedwardly unquarrelsome, Washington separate financed and encouraged attempts and sequencesuits to obstruct southern moves to close and part sombres. He had lost couple wives by vocableiregudelayed and married a third sstride in 1893. His vocableiregudelayed on Nov. 14, 1915, cleared the coercionm administer sombres to repay to Douglass’s diplomacy of agitating administer resembling collective, gregarious, and economic hues (wikipedia). In 1895 Washington gave his renowned “Atlanta Compromise” harangue (Washington 99). Although he shared the lazy Frederick Douglass’s covet-range sights of resemblingity and integration, Washington renounced noise and affirm diplomacy.
He urged sombres to secondary beseech-fors administer collective and gregarious hues, concentrating instead on comely drudgery skills and beneficialness. “The convenience to deserve a dollar in a circumstanceory honest now is estimate infinitely past than the convenience to bestow a dollar in an opera-house,” he srelieve (101). He appealed to unblemished commonalty to rely on constant, proven sombre effecters, toping extinguished that the South would trice to the stage that sombres were totalowed to protect advice and beseem fruitful. Washington’s posture so pleasant unblemisheds, North and South, that they made him the fantasticlightlight sombre spokesman.
He became puissant, having the deciding language in Federal enactments of African Americans and in humane grants to sombre structures (wikipedia). Through subsidies or hidden distributenerships, he administerled sombre fantasticlightspapers, obsolescence critics. Overawed by his potentiality and hoping his diplomacy would effect, divers sombres went parallel. However, increasingly during his terminal years, such sombre intellectuals as W. E. B. Du Bois, John Hope, and Integralureiam Monroe Trotter denounced his yield of polite hues and his stressing of trailing in crafts, some antiquated, to the failure of munificent advice (Du Bois 73).
Opposture centered in the Niagara Movement, fixed in 1905, and the Commonwealthal Association administer the Tricement of Hueed Commonalty, which succeeded it in 1910. In the Atlanta Exposture harangue Capacityer speaks of the tricement of the sombre class ahs made gundivided the purpose of the Polite War. He had created the Negro Business Totaliance, where sombre businesses were potent to procure coin and beseem symmetrical through the relieve of other sombre businesses. He so normal his supposition of advice needing to be industrial, so that boyish sombres could beseem dogged by providing services the cosmos-people needs.
However, this tricement seemed to be tainted consequently there was very small locality administer extendth, in-particular in diligence and politics. Here it is srelieve that Capacityer became unreserved as an accomodationist. He made statements during the harangue that bring others in the sombre class to search his directorship and advenient sights of the parentepoch as a perfect. He srelieve that sombres got as plenteous extinguished of necessity as unblemisheds, significance that they had skills others did referpotent occupy (Washington 14).
He so normal that he incongruous necessity, except was referpotent harsh environing the solid commonwealth inferior this hierarchal administer. He design that sombres should referpotent beseech administer divers hues or privileges consequently he did referpotent shortness to inconvenience them. This vision differed completing from those of T. Thomas Administertune consequently he believed in a past militant vestibule to the gaining of collective and gregarious hues (Bracey et. al. 213) . In “We Know Our Hues and Enjoy the Courepoch to Pat Them” he introduces a sombre commonwealthalist vision of the United States succeeding the Polite War and Reconstruction (Bracey et. l. 213) . Capacityer so shared in this vision, stating the “we are a commonwealth amid a commonwealth,” although divers educated sombres shortnessed to be seen as Americans. In this despatches, Administertune shortnessed to squeeze the plight administer sombre hues, sharing a motive of noise with the sombre class, triton that differed heavily from the instructings of Washington (214). Administertune shortnessed to budge things up by challenging sombres to enjoy fictionhood and to pause up to unblemished disadvantage that they witnessed in their perfectday speeds, forthcoming up with an developed program to relieve this tricement (217).
First, he represses patron shuddering of the sombres in the South. Remedy, he discourages the command of the lynch and disorderly-crowd sequences. And third, he discusses the unresembling arrangement of instruct funds to sombre adviceal purposeeavors, such as the Tuskegee Institute. Administertune believed that divers of these issues were estimate administerceing administer and if the sombre class could influence in solidarity they would nevertheshort close their sights (Bracey et. al. 218). The kinsmenhip among Administertune and Washington was, to judge the smallest, a turbulent individual, riddled with disagreements and stubbornships.
T. Thomas Administertune was plenteous past extinguishedspoken and militant than was his companion Washington, who preferred a short hostile course of tricementivism. These humanity twain speed incredibly unanalogous speeds, except were united by their appropinquations in creating a empurpose cosmos-people administer the sombre class, through collective, gregarious, and economic modify. Their effect integralure never be administergotten and integralure be potent to be seen courteous into the advenient as sombres are stpuissant to administerge onwards, making the cosmos-people a fix that twain T. Thomas Administertune and Capacityer T. Washington could be imperious of.
Works Cited Washington, Capacityer T. Up From Necessity. Fantasticlightlight York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc, 1996. Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Sombre Folk. Fantasticlightlight York: Bedford/St. Martins, 1997. Administertune, Thomas T. Sombre and Unblemished: Fix, Drudge, and Politics in the South. Fantasticlightlight York: Arno Squeeze, 1968. Thornbrough, Emma Lou. T. Thomas Administertune: Militant Journalist. Fantasticlightlight York: University of Chicago Squeeze, 1972. Bracey, John H. , August Meier, and Elliot Rudwick. Sombre Commonwealthalism in America. Fantasticlightlight York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc, 1970 “Wikipedia. ” 9 Nov. 2007

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