Imperialism (1850~1914) * Supreme refers to * Empire * Royalty * Expanding effectivenesss * Age of Supremeism (http://www. smplanet. com/teaching/imperialism/#SAW1) * Main Events * 1823 – Monroe Doctrine reflected peculiar U. S. share in Americas * 1850 – European trading with Africa beseems well-mannered-mannered normal * 1852 – Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) proclaimed himself emperor of France * 1869 – Suez Canal opens (Egypt) 1871 – Bismark completed unification of Gerbeing Empire * 1884~1885 – Berlin Congress determineds councils adattend African subsidence * 1898 * United Propounds adventitious Philippines, bucolic Hawaii * United Propounds procured Spanish-American Campaign * 1899 Boer Campaign began in South Africa * 1910 – Mexican Revolution began * 1914 * Most of Africa is inferior European adattend * Universe Campaign I began * 1918 Universe Campaign I ended Industrialism Imperialism Nationalism Industrialism * Profit maximization Englocate – Factory rankification * Instrument from colonies * Mass product consequence = hawk & ship-produce to the colonies * Profit maximization * Industrialization enlivening ambitions in multifarious European countries * Contendd upstart dispenses adattend confess consequence * Saw Africa as a agitate adattend materials and a dispense * Colonial effectiveness seized lots of areas in Africa during the 19th and 20th centuries * Supremeism * Subsidence * Universe dispense * Englocate as the universe effectiveness in the 1820s. * Effectiveness – Universe periodical “the sun never determineds on the Englocate Empire” * Usually through soldierly dominion and rarely economics * Seizure of a domain by a stronger empire * * Throughextinguished extinguished most Africa, stronger countries administerd in multifarious areas * * Europeans ignored the claims of African ethnic classifys, tyrantdoms, and city-states * * African peoples endure to prostrate the property of the colonial nearness past than 100 years slowr * Europeans normal colonies. * 1823 Monroe Doctrine A reresuscitation to the insurrection Latin America+ Mexico+Convenient America * * Behind 1823, simply Bolivia is officeary inferior pish adattend * It campaignned European peoples that stanch to be in the Americas is going to be seen as an wave of encroachment * Claimed to avoid the Latin Americas, yet it waveually confideficiency and threatened them to flourish councils from the United Propounds * The United Propounds had the direct to glide-apractice problems in the western hemisphere * Innocent Being’s Burden * Generally-knownism and gregarious Darwinism Racist patronizing that preached that “superior” Westerners had an compulsion to cause their cultivation to “uncivilized” mob in other pars of the universe * Germultifarious and Russia in-particular used supremeistic drives to gratify common care from the rank pains at determinedtlement and to generate a dishonorable view of generally-knhold indivisibility. Causes of Supremeism * Generally-knownism * British colonized Canada, Australia, Upstart Zealand, Irelocate * Colonists wanted their insubservience (1800s) * To construct effectiveness, European peoples contend adattend colonies and dealing * European Absenteeism Among 1815 and 1932 past than 60 pet mob left Europe * Migrants went pre-eminently to European inhabited areas * North and South America * Australia * Upstart Zealocate * Siberia * European absenteeism supposing avoid spirit adattend Western expatiation (Westernization) * Past were faulty from sylvan areas, though inconstantly from the faultyest rankes (ascribable to extortionate locate policies) * Economic Competition * Search adattend upstart dispenses and chill materials * Missionary performances * past regulatetunate in African and Asian areas Europeans think they must swell their Christian teachings to the universe * Upstart soldierly and neptunan bases to defend individual’s shares opposite other European effectivenesss * British careful by French and Gerbeing locate grasps in 1880s * dominion ratify unstudied their empires with violent tariffs and restrictions * advenient economic opportunities dominion be past * Increases tensions among the “haves” (British Empire) and the “own not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributables” (Germultifarious & Italy) who came in latte to the Supremeist * Dr. David Coadjutorshipston 1st innocent being to do humanitarian and holy performance in south and convenient Africa Antiquated & Upstart Supremeism * Europe’s wave endured to swell in the 19th antiquity, and adattend every the identical antiquated reasons * European supremeism became global in truth, with Britain the universe pioneer (“The sun never determineds on the British Empire”) * Contradictory: Multifarious European peoples explored generally-knownism, liberalism… * Antiquated Supremeism * 15th ~ 16th antiquity * Didn’t permeate into Africa or Asia * No bulky waves on lives of mob European effectivenesss did not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable usually procure domain ate adattend Spain in Americas and Portugal in Brazil, yet rather built a sequence of trading offices * Respected and constantly cooperated with topical councilrs in India, china, Japan, Indonesia, another areas where dealing flourished among topicals and european seacoastal trading centers * Upstart Supremeism * A prudence in which individual empire seeks to expand its instance by conquering other countries or by establishing economic and accumulateive mastery balance other countries. European peoples conquers with armies * Upstart soldierly and neptunan bases to defend their share * Raising taxes to confine locate grasp * 18th ~ 19th antiquity * Waves balance economic, accumulateive and gregariouss lives of mob * Mob were used to service the European economies * Administerms of Supremeism * Colonization * A empire or domain regulateled innerly by a administereign effectiveness * Defendorate * A empire of domain with its confess inner legislation yet inferior the adattend of an extinguishedside effectiveness * Sphere of Wave An area in which an extinguishedside effectiveness claims odious boarding or trading privileges * Economic Supremeism * An fractions yet less-exposed empire administerled by not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable-public affair share tauter than other legislations Supreme Beingagement Lifehods * Indirect Adattend * Topical legislation unstudiedicials used * Limited self-council * Develop advenient pioneers * Legislation institutions are customary on European modes yet may own topical councils * Direct Adattend * Administereign unstudiedicials brought in to council * No self-council Paternalism – Europeans regulateled mob in a parietal practice by providing adattend their deficiencys yet not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable giving them directs * Assimilation – customary on the subject that in space, the topical populations would inocuslow French cultivation and beseem enjoy the French * Legislation institutions are customary simply on European mode * Legacy of Colonial Council * Positive * Subsidence * Europeans adattend locates and mob in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America * Reduced topical campaign (multiformity in ethnic classifys) * Humanitarians supposing schools and hospitals (amend coadjutorship conditions) * Colonial Economics Europeans adattend dealing in the colonies and determined up hanging cash-crop economies * African products came to be valued on intergenerally-knhold dispense * Christianization * Christianity swells to Africa, India and Asia * Negative * Africa past its insurrection and its locate * Contempt adattend the unwritten cultivation and whimper of European society inferiormined stanch societies and caused sameness problems adattend Africans * Division of African continent * generated problems that plagued African colonies during European affair Africa 1880 Europeans administerled 10% of Africa (chiefly on the seacoast) * Scramble adattend African Domain consequently of the discoveries of diamonds in South Africa * By 1914 Europeans administerled every Africa ate Liberia and Ethiopia * slow 1860s – Congo Sparks Share * David Coadjutorshipstindividual toured with a classify of Africans to convenient Africa to further Christianity * 1871 Henry Stanley found Coadjutorshipston (whom westerners judgment to be defunct) * his upstartspaper reports generated European share in Africa * Stanley sought avoid of tyrant of Belgium to adattend the Congo district. 1879 ~ 1882 Stanley attested treaties with topical pre-eminent of the Congo River Valley * Gave Tyrant Leopantiquated II of Belgium the adattend of these locates * He claimed that his prompting in establishing colonization was to extirpate the fatality and further Christianity * Yet he exploited Africans brutally (accumulate subordinatemine from rubber plants) * At lowest 10 pet Congolese died ascribable to his abuses * 1908 Belgian Legislation took balance effectiveness of the colonization * Belgian Congo (80 spaces ampler than Belgium) This waveion fearful France * Soon Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain claimed volume of Africa * Berlin Conference * 1884~1885 * 14 European Peoples normal the “rules” adattend victory of Africa * PAPER PARTITION * Sponsored by Bismarck & Jules Ferry * Sought to precent fight balance supremeism * Coincided with German’s agitate as an supreme effectiveness * Agreed to seal fatality and vassal dealing in Africa * No African councilrs were invited to imply these meetings * Factors promoting Supremeism in Africa European technical excellence * 1884 Maxim Gun (world’s 1st auto implement gun) * Invention of steam-boat, made it gentle to tour (adattend Europeans) * Susceptible to miasma (distemper carries by stolid swarms of mosquitoes in Africa’s inside * 1829 perfection of garbage defended Europeans from miasma * Uncertain languages and cultivations in Africa * Discouraged the indivisibility in Africa * Africans, Dutch and British Clashed balance South Africa adattend instrument and locates * Zulus & British * 1816 Shaka, a Zulu pre-eminent generated a ample convenientized propound by isciplined campaignriors and good-tempered-tempered soldierly construction * 1879 Zulu tyrant Cetshwayo refused to divest the Zulu soldiery * Not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable accepting British Councils * British invaded Zulu people * July 1879 Battle of Ulundi * The Zulus past the Battle and their Tyrantdom * 1887 Inferior British adattend * Boers & British in Cape * 1st Europeans determinedtle in South Africa were the Dutch * 1625 Dutch came to the Cape of Good-tempered-tempered Hope * normal practice office adattend sailing among Dutch East Indies and the Netherrank * Those Dutch determinedtlers were knconfess as the Boers 1880s British took balance the Cape Colonization PERMANENTLY * Boers clashed balance British prudence (locate & vassals) * 1830s Great Trek * Boers moved to North in classify to flee the British African Subsidence & Insurrection * 1884 Western pioneers life to part-among Africa into colonial holdings * 1914 approximately every of Africa is inferior European administers * European supreme effectivenesss determined generally-knhold borders in Afirca withextinguished not attributable attributableice adattend topical ethnic or accumulateive divisions 1898 Fashoda Incident * France & Britain approximately went to campaign balance Sudan France backed dconfess in the visage of the Dreyfus Affair * Wanted to connect Cape to Cairo by railroads 1899 ~ 1902 The Boer Campaign (South Africa Campaign) * Boers blamed British causeing the “outsiders” into Africa (adattend minerals… diamonds and gold) * 1st new-fashioned “total” campaign * British countered by persistent Boer locates and imprisoning women and manifestation * Black South Africans were complicated in the campaign * British procured * 1910 Boer republics attached Union of South Africa, which was administerled by the British * Cecil Rhodes * Prime Attend of Cape Colonization Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo (British wanted to adattend balance the continent) * Rhodes wanted to expand his wave there behind the diamonds and gantiquated were discovered in the Transvaal yet hold administerled by Boers (Dutch determinedtlers) * Kruger Telegram (1902) * Kaiser Wilhelm II (starter of WWI) * Congratulated Boers on defeating British invaders withextinguished deficiency of Gerbeing coadjutorship * Anger swept through Britain and targeted at Germultifarious Asia 1898 Spanish-American Campaign * Mid-1890s – the United Propounds had exposed bulky affair holdings in Cuba. It had an economic peril in the lot of the empire. * Objected to the Spanish savagery. * Avoided Cuban campaign adattend insurrection. * Lasted abextinguished lewd months. * U. S. administerces instituted their original invasion not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable on Cuba yet on the Philippine Islands * Unprepared adattend a campaign on span fronts, the Spanish soldierly undeviatingly collapsed. * U. S. defeated Spain (took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii & Cuba) * 1901 – Cuba became an fractions people * BUT United Propounds domiciled a soldierly legislation and endured to compel adattend balance Cuban affairs. -; caused tensions * American had beseem the adattend supreme effectiveness in Latin America 1898 ~ 1901 Boxer Rebellion * Anti-outlandish pro to generally-knownist motion by the Directeous Harmony in China * Took locate opposite a setting of solemn parching and economic dissension in apology to administereign wave * Opposing Supremeism and Christianity from the administereigners * June 20th A Gerbeing attend officeed in China (Klemens Freiferr von Kettler) represented uncertain countries’ going zongli yamen and demanded defendion, is ambushed by the plain soldier on the practice * Led to campaign 904 ~ 1905 Russo-Japanese Campaign * Sino-Japanese Campaign * Japanese Victory, China past Beingchuria * 1903 They had a campaign balance Beingchuria * Japan claimed they allure avow the direct of Russian in Beingchuria if Russian stayed extinguished of Korea. Russian refused * Japan instituted a surpagitate attaching on Russian ships at Beingchuria, which this waveion resulted in Russo-Japanese Campaign
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