I. Widespread sovereignty and political upheaval A. Enlightened and revolutionary concepts 1. Widespread sovereignty: relocating sovereignty within the folks a. Historically monarchs claimed a "divine proper" to rule b. The Enlightenment challenged this proper, made the monarch accountable to the folks c. John Locke's principle of contractual authorities: authority comes from the consent of the ruled 2. Freedom and equality: vital values of the Enlightenment d. Calls for for freedom of worship and freedom of expression e.
Calls for for political and authorized equality (a) Condemned authorized and social privileges of noblemen (b) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract f. Equality not prolonged to ladies, peasants, laborers, slaves, or folks of coloration g. Beliefs of Enlightenment had been important world affect B. The American Revolution Three. Pressure between Britain and the North American colonies h. Legacy of Seven Years' Conflict: British debt, North American tax burden i. Mounting colonial protest over taxes, commerce insurance policies, Parliamentary rule (a) Colonial boycott of British items b) Assaults on British officers; Boston Tea Social gathering, 1773 j. Political protest over illustration in Parliament: Continental Congress, 1774 ok. British troops and colonial militia skirmished on the village of Lexington, 1775 four. The Declaration of Independence, four July 1776 l. 13 united States of America severed ties with Britain m. Declaration impressed by Enlightenment and Locke's principle of presidency 5. The American Revolution, 1775-1781 n. British benefits: robust authorities, navy, military, plus loyalists in colonies o.
American benefits: European allies, George Washington's management p. Weary of a pricey battle, British forces surrendered in 1781 6. Constructing an impartial state: Constitutional Conference, 1787 q. Structure assured freedom of press, of speech, and of faith r. American republic based mostly on rules of freedom, equality, standard sovereignty s. Full authorized and political rights had been granted solely to males of property C. The French Revolution 7. Summoning the Estates Common t. Monetary disaster: half of presidency income went to nationwide debt u. King Louis XVI compelled to summon Estates Common to boost new taxes v. Many representatives needed sweeping political and social reform w. First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried to restrict Third Property (commoners) eight. The Nationwide Meeting shaped by consultant of Third Property, 17 June 1789 x. Demanded a written structure and standard sovereignty y. Indignant mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked insurrections in lots of cities z. Nationwide Meeting wrote the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" 9. Liberty, equality, and fraternity" was the slogan and values of the Nationwide Meeting . France turned a constitutional monarchy, 1791 10. The Conference changed Nationwide Meeting beneath new structure, 1791 . Austrian and Prussian armies invaded France to revive ancien regime ~. Conference abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic . King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette executed, 1793 .
Radical Jacobins dominated the Conference in 1793-94 in a "reign of terror" . Revolutionary modifications: in faith, gown, calendar, ladies's rights 11. The Listing, 1795-1799 . A conservative response in opposition to the excesses of the Conference . Executed the Jacobin chief Robespierre, July 1794 . New structure . “Males are born and stay free and equal in rights. Social distinctions could also be based mostly solely on widespread utility. ” - The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen D. The reign of Napoleon, 1799-1815 12. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Good army chief; turned a basic within the royal military at age twenty-four . Supported the revolution; defended the Listing . His invasion of Egypt was defeated by British military . Overthrew the Listing and named himself consul for all times 13. Napoleonic France introduced stability after years of chaos . Made peace with the Roman Catholic church and pope . Prolonged freedom of faith to Protestants and Jews . Civil Code of 1804: political and authorized equality for all grownup males .
Restricted particular person freedom, particularly speech and press 14. Napoleon's empire: 1804, proclaimed himself emperor . Dominated the European continent: Iberia, Italy, Netherlands . Defeated Austria and Prussia; fought British on excessive seas . Disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 destroyed Grand Military 15. The autumn of Napoleon . Compelled by coalition of enemies to abdicate in 1814, exiled on Elba . Escaped, returned to France, raised military, however was defeated by British in 1815 II. The affect of revolution E.
The Haitian Revolution: the one profitable slave revolt in historical past 16. Saint-Domingue, wealthy French colony on western Hipiola . Society dominated by small white planter class . 90 p.c of inhabitants had been slaves working beneath brutal situations . Massive communities of escaped slaves, or maroons . Free blacks fought in American battle, introduced again revolutionary concepts . Widespread discontent: white settlers sought self-governance, gens de couleur sought political rights, slaves needed freedom 17.
Slave revolt started in 1791 . Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur, and slaves battled one another . French troops arrived in 1792; British and Spanish forces intervened in 1793 18. Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803) . Son of slaves, literate, expert organizer, constructed a robust and disciplined military . Managed most of Saint-Domingue by 1797, created a structure in 1801 . Arrested by French troops; died in jail, 1803 19. The Republic of Haiti . Yellow fever ravaged French troops; defeated and pushed out by slave armies .
Declared independence in 1803; established the Republic of Haiti in 1804 F. Wars of independence in Latin America 20. Latin American society rigidly hierarchical . Social courses: peninsulares, creoles, slaves, and indigenous peoples . Creoles sought to displace thepeninsulares however retain their privileged place 21. Mexican independence . Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened royal management of colonies . 1810: peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo, defeated by conservative creoles . 1821: Mexico briefly a army dictatorship, then in 1822 a republic .
South a part of Mexico was break up into a number of impartial states in 1830s 22. Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) led independence motion in South America . Impressed by George Washington, took arms in opposition to Spanish rule in 1811 . Creole forces overcame Spanish armies all through South America, 1824 . Bolivar's effort of making the Gran Colombia failed in 1830s 23. Brazilian independence . Portuguese royal courtroom fled to Rio de Janeiro, 1807 . The king's son, Pedro, agreed to Brazilian independence, 1821 .
Grew to become Emperor Pedro I within the impartial Brazil (reigned 1822-1834) 24. Creole dominance in Latin America . Independence introduced little social change in Latin America . Principal beneficiaries had been creole elites G. The emergence of ideologies: conservatism and liberalism 25. Conservatism: resistance to alter . Significance of continuity, custom . Edmund Burke considered society as an organism that modified slowly over time (a) American Revolution: a pure and logical final result of historical past (b) French Revolution: violent and irresponsible 26.
Liberalism: welcomed change as an agent of progress . Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written constitutions . John Stuart Mill championed particular person freedom and minority rights H. Testing the boundaries of revolutionary beliefs: slavery 27. Actions to finish slave commerce: started in 1700s, gained momentum throughout revolutions . In 1807 British Parliament outlawed slave commerce . Different states adopted go well with, although unlawful slave commerce continued from a while 28. Actions to abolish slavery: harder due to property rights .
In Haiti and far of South America, finish of slavery got here with independence . In Europe and North America, marketing campaign in opposition to slave commerce turned marketing campaign to abolish slavery . Abolition in Britain in 1833, France in 1848, the US in 1865, Brazil in 1888 29. Abolition introduced authorized freedom for slaves however not political equality I. Testing the boundaries of revolutionary beliefs: ladies's rights 30. Enlightenment beliefs and girls . Enlightenment name for equality not typically prolonged to ladies .
Ladies used logic of Locke to argue for girls's rights (a) Mary Astell attacked male dominance within the household (b) Mary Wollstonecraft: ladies possessed identical pure rights as males . “Girl is born free and lives equal to man in her rights. Social distinctions could be based mostly solely on the widespread utility. ” - The Declaration of Rights of Girl and the Feminine Citizen 31. Ladies essential to revolutionary actions . French revolution granted ladies rights of training and property, not the vote . Olympe de Gouges's declaration of full citizenship for girls too radical .
Ladies made no important features in different revolutions 32. Ladies's rights actions gained floor within the nineteenth century in United States and Europe III. The consolidation of nationwide states in Europe J. Nations and nationalism 33. Cultural nationalism: an expression of nationwide identification . Emphasised widespread historic expertise . Used people tradition and literature for instance nationwide spirit (Volkgiest) 34. Political nationalism extra intense within the nineteenth century . Demanded loyalty and solidarity from members of the nationwide group .
Minorities sought independence as a nationwide group . Younger Italy shaped by Giuseppe Mazzini 35. Zionism: Jewish nationalism as a response to widespread European anti-Semitism . Motion based by Theodor Herzl to create a Jewish state in Palestine . Jewish state of Israel lastly created in 1948 Okay. The emergence of nationwide communities 36. Congress of Vienna, 1814-15 . Conservative leaders decided to revive previous order after defeat of Napoleon . Succeeded in sustaining stability of energy in Europe for a century .
Failed in repressing nationalist and revolutionary concepts 37. Nationalist rebellions in opposition to previous order all through nineteenth century . Greek rebels overcame Ottoman rule in 1827 . 1830 and 1848, rebellions in France, Spain, Portugal, and German states . Conservative authorities often restored afterward however beliefs continued L. The unification of Italy and Germany 38. Cavour and Garibaldi united Italy by 1870 . Mazzini's Younger Italy impressed uprisings in opposition to overseas rule in Italy . Cavour led nationalists and expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy, 1859 .
Garibaldi managed southern Italy, returned it to King Vittore Emmanuele, 1860 39. Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) created a united Germany . In Germany, nationalist insurrection was repressed in 1848 . Bismarck provoked three wars that swelled German delight . 1871, Prussian king proclaimed emperor of the Second Reich The years 1776 and 1789 are pivotal dates in world historical past. The affect of the American Revolution and the French Revolution prolonged far past the borders of these two international locations.
Different revolts adopted, and despite a conservative response in Europe, the world was not the identical afterward. Some widespread parts of the revolutionary period: * New beliefs. The beliefs of freedom, equality, and standard sovereignty first expressed by the philosophes of the Enlightenment (see Chapter 24) had been now enacted. John Locke's principle of presidency as a contract between rulers and topics impressed the leaders of the American Revolution. Likewise, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's idea of a "social contract" based mostly on the "basic will" discovered expression within the Nationwide Meeting of France. * New governments.
Vastly completely different governments emerged in the US, France, and Latin America. Nonetheless, most revolutionary governments started with written constitutions, statements of particular person rights, and elected assemblies. Political energy was typically the privilege of males of property. Solely Haiti empowered all males no matter race. * New ideologies. Political theories emerged to deal with the dramatic modifications of the age. Conservatism, liberalism, and later, socialism (see chapter 30) differed within the understanding of change and authority and got here to specific the social and financial currents of the nineteenth century. Uneven social progress. Some modifications, such because the abolition of feudal rights and obligations in France, had been profound and everlasting. Different modifications, just like the abolition of slavery within the Americas, got here extra slowly and piecemeal. Equal rights for girls didn't acquire momentum till late within the nineteenth century. * Nationalism. Widespread sovereignty gave voice to a brand new type of identification. Based mostly on notions of a typical cultural and historic expertise, nationalism was a strong pressure within the nineteenth century.
Ethnic minorities just like the Greeks inside the Ottoman empire demanded nationwide independence, and scattered cultural teams just like the Italians and the Germans created new states to accommodate their nationwide identities. Each revolution begins with the issues of the Outdated Regime 1st stage = rising dissatisfaction with the Outdated regime, spontaneous acts of protest and violence, overthrow 2nd stage = honeymoon with average new authorities third stage = takeover of the extremists, lack of individualism, the federal government turns into violent and extreme 4th stage = reestablishment of some kind of equilibrium, rights, and so forth. , often beneath a “strongman”