Causation in Research and Epidemiological Study Designs

Concept of Causation and niggardly Epidemiological judge contemplations.

Name: Confucius Aligo Fullison Amba


Objective of this dissertation is to expound the concept of ‘Causation’ and expound of some niggardly epidemiological judge contemplations

Causation Definition

Causation is defined as the faculty of peculiar capricious to swing another. The chief capricious may import the avoid into being or may principle the stroke of the avoid capricious to vacillate. “Causality is a genetic conjunction of phenomena through which peculiar fiction (the principle) lower sure provisions gives run to, principles somefiction else (the commodities)” (Alexander 1983)1

The concept of causation was chief illustrative by Plato he recurrent that “everyfiction that becomes or changes must do so imputable to some principle, restraint nofiction can succeed to be extraneously a principle” (Menno)2. The stoics recurrent that “principle is embodyed twain to an exceptionless dispose and to destiny. They strictly restrain to the representation that each accident has a principle” (Menno). A principle of illness is “an accident, situation, specialitys or cabal of these constituents which plays an significant role in surrendering the illness” (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology).

Niggardly Epidemiological judge contemplations

The messcentury epidemiology succeeds from the Greek messcentury “epi, import on or upon, demos, import mass, and logos, import judge of”3 the Epidemiology is the “judge of the classification of illness and determinants of sanity-related states or accidents in fixed ethnical population and the impression of this judge to the regulate of ethnical sanity problem”(CDC)3. Epidemiology is “data-driven and relies on a essential and unjaundiced entrance to the collation, partition and solution of axioms. It so draws on methods from other or-laws scopes including biostatistics and informatics, with biologic, economic, collective and behavioral sciences” (CDC).

Epidemiological studies are passed using ethnical population to pointize causal relevancy among constituents that and peculiar or population is surrender to and the sanity commodities of the pitfall. The epidemiological studies contemplations can be classified either as observational or experimental. (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology).

Experimental judge contemplations

Experimental studies can be wildized regulateled, non-randomized regulate, scope transcript studies and fraternity trials.

  • Randomized regulateled transcript (RCT), choice spectry clinical trials (JLI dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology) in this judge “mass are fullocated at wild to charm peculiar of various clinical insinuations”4 peculiar of the clump is a regulate which may be loving a attributebo or no insinuation. This judge is “quantitative, relatively, regulateled experiments in which investigators judge brace or more insinuations in a dispose of peculiars who charm them in wild dispose. The RCT is peculiar of the elementaryst and most strong tools in clinical research” ( This judge is termed as “gold standard” ( that pointizes the commoditiesiveness of texture.
  • Non-randomized regulateled transcripts this is a judge in which is assigned to an insinuation hesitate and referable wild. Participants may be volunteers who recognize to own-a-portion-extinguished in the judge.
  • Scope trials are judge contemplation where the insinuation strategies are assigned to sanityy peculiars among the fraternity.
  • Fraternity trials choice spectry fraternity insinuations studies (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology) are mainly destructive; insinuations are assigned to full fraternity members in the judge area. The utilitys comprise easier changing the fraternity collective environment; insinuations are examinationed in express gentleman provisions and low-priceder (Omar 2006)5

Observational judge contemplations

Observational studies can be either pictorial or analytic studies. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableiceal studies fullows probableness to charm attribute; “the investigator values yet does referable intervene”. (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology).

Pictorial studies

Pictorial studies are studies that are contemplation to narrate transaction of illness by occasion, attribute and special, term analytic studies are studies contemplationed to search etiology and causal conjunction. “A pictorial judge is poor to a style of the transaction of a illness in a population and is frequently the chief plod in an epidemiological investigation”. (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology).

Pictorial epidemiological judge contemplation narrates the transaction of illness or the determinants among a population. Pictorial epidemiological judge produces theory and reply the questions WHAT, WHO, WHERE & WHEN? The WHO refers to special and speciality such as (age, sex, encroachment), WHERE refers to attribute that is dregs (residence, toil or hospital). WHEN refers to occasion (includes idiosyncrasy, examination and fameing), pictorial studies can be “geographical or ecological so disclosed as ecological correlational studies search population, can be explanationd to manifest patterns of illness and allyd constituents in a population and part of judge are populations or clumps”6. The advantcentury of ecological studies comprise explanation of prescription calm sanity statistics, low-priced and elementary to pass, produce theory to search at peculiar level; and the disadvantages comprises bankruptcy of beneficial axioms on confounding constituents, discord among areas in configuration of pitffull and discord in recording illness abundance (, David AG., Kenneth FS., 20027). The other important sign of pictorial judge is peculiar judge “living-souls studies are levelt fames, levelt-dispose fame, cross-sectional studies and surveillance” (David AG., Kenneth FS., 2002).

Case-dispose fame this conjoin peculiar corrective referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableice in peculiar fame or “appearance of various alike levelts in a soon bound heralds an epidemic” (David AG., Kenneth FS., 2002).

Event fame this is an referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableice fameed by a clinician. This medium bring to levelt-regulate studies to pointize the conjunction of the extinguishedsucceed to the pitffull restraint stance desire term explanation of peculiar medication (David AG., Kenneth FS., 2002)

Cross-sectional studies this is so referred to as extension judge and is explanationd to narrate the sanity of a population, this can be judge in smfull population with point pitffull restraint stance employee in a constituenty (David AG., Kenneth FS., 2002)

Surveillance judge this can be dpeculiar as locomotive or unquestioning ongoing collation, partition and solution of sanity axioms. In dispose to pointize regulate and destructive value to any attested sanity situation (David AG., Kenneth FS., 2002).

Ecological judge so stated co-relational studies “the part of partition is population or clumps of mass rather than peculiars” (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology). This judge “behold restraint conjunctions among pitfalls and conclusions in population” (David AG., Kenneth FS., 2002). This sign of judge is elementary to pass, solution is frequently trying and it’s trying to embody peculiar to pitffull and commodities. (JLI Video Dissertation voice – 3rd Lesson of Epidemiology).

Analytical judge contemplation

Analytical epidemiological judge contemplation aims to property lowerstanding on the property and the impression of the illnesss determinants on the transaction of illness. Analytical studies can cohort judge, levelt regulate judge and cross-sectional judge

  • Cohort Judge is the judge that realize peculiars installed on their pitffull foundation, this judge judge brace clump of mass surrender and non- surrenderd in dispose to supervene the illness extinguishedsucceed whether illness or non-disease, the “judge participant are superveneed overtime-form weeks to years; and the judge clump portion-extinguished specialitys restraint stance in nobility cohort”8. The advantcentury of this judge comprise genius of the abandon, can behold at multiple conclusions, can summon the immanent gentleman fact of illness and the disadvantages comprise requires liberal population, referable fitting restraint honorable extinguishedsucceed or pitfall, extravagant and occasion consuming.
  • Event Regulate Judge are retrospective they natural behold end. In this judge the levelts own the situation and the regulates are referable, its beholds end to realize the abandon constituents ally with the illness. in this judge “the extension of pitffull to a immanent abandon constituent (s) is compared among levelts and regulates”6
  • Cross-Sectional Judge this judge is explanationd to pointize the “extension of the extinguishedsucceed of concern restraint a loving population”9. This studies can assess multiple extinguished succeed and abandon constituents, explanationful restraint exoteric sanity planning and illness etiology, charms weak occasion and referable extravagant, can think extension of extinguishedsucceed of concern. With this judge extension-stroke partiality may happen and trying to create causal corollary (Kate 2006).
  • Occupational epidemiological judge this judge contemplationed excellent toiling mass with point jobs or pitffull as the subjects restraint the judge. Toilers own exalted pitffull to sure abandon constituents than the general population, imputable to their abandon pitffull the verisimilitude of judgment and commodities is exalted if any gentleman commoditiess endure. However, the extinguishedsucceed of this judge divers referable be generalized to the overfull population and level toiler with may own opposed abandon from each other.


  1. Alexander Spirkin (1983) Dialectical Materialism © 1983 by Progress Publishers beneficial at similarityed on 2015/06/17
  2. Menno Hulswit A Soon Fact of Causation University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands beneficial at similarityed on 2015/06/17
  3. Centre restraint Illness Regulate and Prevention Principles of Epidemiology in Exoteric Sanity Practice, Third Edition An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics CDC 24/7: Saving Lives, Protecting Mass beneficial at
  4. Definition of Wildized regulateled transcript beneficial at similarity on 2015/06/16
  5. Omar Kasule Islamic Medical Education Resources -04 0611-Randomized Contemplation: Fraternity Trials abstract of dissertation restraint MPH candidates at university Malaya on Friday November 3, 2006 beneficial at
  6. Sanity Knowledge Education, CPD and Revalidation from Phast Introduction to judge contemplations 1a – Epidemiology beneficial at
  7. David AG.; and Kenneth FS (2002). Pictorial Studies: what they can and canreferable do Epidemiological Dispose Lancet 2002; 359:145-49 beneficial at similarityed on 2015/06/18.
  8. Institute restraint toil & Sanity Research Excellence Advancing Employee sanity what researchers medium by — cohort judge beneficial at similarityed on 2015/06/16
  9. Kate Ann Levin Judge contemplation III: Cross-sectional studies Evidence-Installed Dentistry (2006) Dental Sanity Service Research Part, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK. 7, 24-25.Doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400375 beneficial at similarityed on 2015/06/16
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