Climate Change and Food Security

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Climate Change and Food Security

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Elucidation to the ponder Our activities are obstructive to the environment, our daily upshot and behaviour domestically, industrially and polite-mannered-balanced unwanderingly denunciationens the fixture of environment as polite-mannered-mannered as weigh of the ecosystem. We repeatedly incineobjurgate bushes to farm, we exercitation cultivation quenchedside attributable revere to the environment (oil), we cut/fell trees down quenchedside polite-informed that we are altering the eco- regularity and constitution. Entire these cosmical activities are unpromising the constitution and at the design, we ourselves are to visage the referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablees and are to be blamed. (Professor David Ukali, chairbeing of NEST, Nov, 2010) David Ukali’s assertion teachs how cosmical activities guide to the backlash we trial in our environment today. Being suffers unactual environmental qualifys as a upshot


1.1 Enhancement to the consider

Our activities are inimical to the environment, our daily is-sue and behaviour domestically, industrially and smooth unrovingly menaceens the uprightness of environment as well-behaved-mannered-mannered as et of the ecosystem. We commsimply ggentle bushes to farm, we usage tillage extraneously imputable behold to the environment (oil), we cut/fell trees down extraneously shrewd that we are altering the eco- scheme and species. Complete these anthropological activities are imminent the species and at the purpose, we ourselves are to countenance the inferences and are to be blamed.

(Professor David Ukali, moderator of NEST, Nov, 2010)

David Ukali’s declaration illustrates how anthropological activities administer to the backlash we habit in our environment today. Art suffers sunlifeless environmental modifys as a product of irapt unroving usages coupled with unprincipled perditions of sunlifeless significant elements in the environment. Say modify is possibly the most solemn environmental menace to the action abutting hunger, malnutrition, indisfeature and destitution in Africa, chiefly through its contact on unroving productivity. Say modify is individual of the most solemn environmental menaces facing company universewide. Say modify may already be contacting Nigeria as artifested by acceptiond flooding, advanced rains, augmentd desertification, increasing bush fires and livelihood shame.It inquires tillage in sepaobjurgate ways, including its commoned contact on livelihood mouldation. Say modify which is ascribable to the unless say cycle and anthropological activities, has preventively improbable unroving productivity in Africa (Ziervogel et al. 2006).

That there is a modify in the global climatic scheme is no craveer in vacillate. Control persuasion, the continuances we truthd to feel rain feel modifyd its relation in provisions of sun rays and that is why it has been generally agreed that this say modify which is posing the first menace to art and duration on planet universe is gaining rejoinder and that in the advenient decade the universe earn spectator excellent says and changing in subsidence smooths which would administer to gentle/ inadequate unroving proceeds. The upshot of say modify has beseem over imminent referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable singly to the sustainable quenchedaugmentation of socio-economic and unroving activities of any crowd referable attributable attributablewithstanding to the sayment of anthropological creature (Adejuwon, 2004). Rough estimates recommend that balance the next 50years or so climatic modify earn enjoyly feel a solemn menace to discussion global livelihood needs than any other constraints on unroving scheme. (IPCC; 2007, BNRCC, 2008).

Available manifestation shows that say modify is global; deep smooth rose environing 17 centimetres (6.7 inches) in the ultimate senility and the objurgate has doubled in the ultimate decade, there has been a stir in the global say smooth though the 2000s spectatored a brilliant quenchedput dismiss producting in an unusually thick brilliant reserve in 2007-2009, surcountenance says live to acception, glaciers are unimportant haltly everywhere encircling the universe including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa, as-well-behaved its contacts referable attributable attributablewithstanding the most preventive possessions earn be felt chiefly by developing countries, chiefly those in Africa, imputable to their gentle smooth of coping capabilities (Nwacontrol 2007; Jagtap 2007).

Nigeria is viewed as individual of these developing countries (Odjugo, 2010). Nigeria is experiencing preventive say circumstancess with preventive contacts on the prosperity of millions of its population, as the planet warms, rainfcomplete patterns displace, and final smoothts such as ariditys, floods, and grove fires beseem over common (Zoellick 2009). Arty African countries, which feel their economies easily domiciled on air- perceptive Unroving mouldation scheme enjoy Nigeria, are in-particular delicate to say modify (Dinar et al, 2008). This vulnerability has been demonstrated by the devastating possessions of slow flooding in the Niger- Delta say of the say and the sunlifeless prolonged aridity that are currently spectatored in some divorce of Northern say.

According to Olanrewaju (2003), climatic modify is any mould of crave tidings climatic inconsistency. The slow modifys in the say feel been linked with the acception in greenhotruth gases (GHG) on the latitude in restitution to anthropogenic activities and patronage emissions of other uneventual chlorocarbons (Olanrewaju, 2003).

Say modify is so believed to product from the commodities of global warming on the environment. Global warming is beholded by arty crowd to be the most solemn environmental defy of new intervals (Giddens, 2006). Global warming refers to the unintermittent stir of the universe’s mediocre say imputable to modifys in the chemical adjustment of the latitude; it is believed to be caused in divorces by anthropologicals, accordingly the gases that feel built up and altered the universe’s latitude are the individuals produced in spacious quantities by anthropological activities. Global warming instrument that arty conductless areas are going to obtain drier and humid areas are going to obtain humidter. “Say modify in Nigeria is a ticking interval bomb and it exists trivial or smooth referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablehing to soothe its possessions.”(Nnimmo Bassey, Nigeria.) Peer-reviewed examination original by the Narrative of Geography and Sayal Planning concludes that Nigeria’s mediocre say has stirn by 1.7 degrees in the continuance 1901-2005. The acception has been excellent in the semi-arid says and gentleer in the coastal zone; the objurgate of modify has acceptiond past the 1970s.

The inference control the Nigerian crowd is a geographical pincer menace from desertification in the north and coastal erosion in the south. Through a combicrowd of balancegrazing, abtruth of woodland control fuel and increasingly spurious rainfall, the Sahara is advancing at an estimated objurgate of 600 meters per annum, rallying deep smooths menaceen Nigeria’s coastal says the Niger Delta may be the fountain of ease opulence referable attributable attributablewithstanding its gentle-lying terrain crisis-crossed with waterways makes it finally delicate to flooding and salinization i.e. the build-up of salts in deepse smoothtually to toxic smooth control settle.

Livelihood insure is the quenchedaugmentation of livelihood scheme processes complete acrave the livelihood chain; say modify earn inquire livelihood insure through its contacts on complete components of global, crowdal and general livelihood scheme. The determination of livelihood insure as adopted at the Universe Livelihood Summit (WFS) in November 1996 says that; “livelihood insure exists when complete crowd at complete intervals feel accidentual or economic arrival to adequate secured and salutary livelihood to unite their dietary needs and livelihood preferences control an free and wholesome duration” ( FAO, 1996).

Individual of the biggest menaces is growing say unpredictability, which makes livelihood cultivation trying, the contact of the modify earn be trying to manage and it earn be hypothetically very crave ultimateing,Droughts are obtainting worse and say irregularity is growing, Say modify is thus an unequalled menace to livelihood insure (Medugu, 2013). Arid and semi-arid areas in northern Nigeria are beadvenient drier, period the southern divorce of the say are obtainting humidter, as the air obtains warmer most of the aquatic duration, the fish, tpurpose to inquire colder waters thereby emptying Nigeria’s spacious waters of marine media, and which by extension instrument Nigeria’s confidence on indispensable fish and other deep livelihoods acceptions. Say modify commsimply appears very advanced referable attributable attributablewithstanding in Nigeria; it is actual, Currently there is an increasing impingement of indisposition, ignoble unroving productivity, and rallying impingements of excitement waves (Stringer et al., 2009).

The menace that say modify poses to unroving mouldation does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable singly cbalance the area of quenchedaugmentation husbanlifeless referable attributable attributablewithstanding so includes livestock and in accident the whole unroving sector. The contacts of say modify on tillage can be classified into bioeventual and socioeconomic contact (Khanal, 2009). Say can so inquire the size and power of satisfy stuffs such as garden, controlage, and bit and so the severity and arrangement of livestock indispositions and opportunityserver (Niggol and Mendelsohn 2008). Say modify contacts the impure description magnitude of livelihood insure, namely livelihood availability, livelihood uprightness, livelihood arrivalibility, and livelihood utilization.

According to confidence 2020 as quenchedward by the government of slow moderator Umar Musa Yar’dua in October 2009 sayd that; “by 2020 Nigeria earn feel a spacious, impetuous, diversified, sustainable and competitive dispensation that commoditiesively impede the size and energies of its crowd and responsibly exploits its unless purposeowments to insure a tall flag of influence and power of duration to its citizens” the quenchedward bequest of Nigeria’s crowdal unroving plan are; firstly secure livelihood insure, secondly acception mouldation and productivity, thirdly geneobjurgate affair and proceeds and impurethly open ship-produces and subjugate livelihood imports thereby freeing media control ticklish inframake quenchedaugmentation and offer of political services. To consummate this bequest, the tenor of say modify as to be curtailed so as to augment advenient possibilities of economic quenchedaugmentation and augmentation which is the elder appearance of the say.

1.2 Declaration of the Tenor

In Nigeria, tillage has contributeed to be the deep fountain of livelihood, and a elder fountain of industrial bare symbolical, as well-behaved-mannered-mannered as the instrument of earning controleign vary. It employs halt to 70% of the Nigeria’s population. Unroving usage in the say is predominantly rain-fed and accordingly in-particular delicate to the contacts of say modify, and a consider ment by ( Harvard Affair Ground) HBS in 2010 predicted that inferior a affair as-usual scenario, Nigeria’s unroving productivity could dismiss by betwixt 10-25% by 2080, in convinced divorces a dismiss in rain-fed tillage could be as tall as 50%, charybdis to final smoothts makes livelihood and smcomplete flake farmers most delicate to say modify accordingly of their poor cleverness to harmonize.

Therefore, Nigeria’s vulnerability earn be in two ways:

  1. The producting contacts of say modify
  2. The contact of vindication measures this is accordingly Nigeria’s dispensation is tallly trusting on proceeds breedd from the mouldation, processing, ship-produce and waste of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products.

As a product of the global climatic modify, Nigeria has been improbable augustly as there has been variations in the air circumstances and so the common flooding that feel led to the perdition of properties and so termination of arty Nigerians chiefly in the riverine area of the say.

1.3 Examination Questions

The examination questions control the consider are as follows;

1) What is the kindred betwixt say modify and livelihood insure?

2) What has been the commodities of global say modify on livelihood insure in Nigeria?

3) What is the contact of say modify on livelihood insure in Ogun Say?

  1. Objectives of the Consider

The pristine extrinsic is to prove global say modify and how it inquires livelihood insure in Ogun Say, Nigeria. It can be consummated through the subjoined.

1) Illustrateing the kindred betwixt say modify and livelihood insure

2) Identifying and analysing the possessions of global say modify on livelihood insure in Ogun Say.

3) Illustrating the contact of say modify on livelihood insure in Ogun say

  1. Examination Hypotheses

Control the purpose of this examination some hypotheses are purposed to be mouldulated and tested. The hypotheses are drawn from the extrinsic examination questions of the consider. The hypotheses are:

Hypothesis individual:

H0: global say modify does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable feel a august contact on livelihood insure in Ogun Say

H1: global say modify has a august contact on livelihood insure in Ogun Say

Hypothesis two:

H0: Adequate efforts feel referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable been made to subjugate the possessions of global say modify on livelihood insure in Ogun Say.

H1: Adequate efforts feel been made to trash the possessions of global say modify on livelihood insure in Ogun Say.

  1. Notion of the Consider

Every examination is-sue is a subscription to already stquenched experience. Accordingly, as the universe is dynamic and tenors are a faithful divorce of art’s creature and crowd earn constantly live to pains control birth and as a product of this crowd earn constantly be moved to brave and accidentors legitimate control such tenors and then going more this to offer solutions control this tenors. In as abundant as global say modify offal stipulated in our say today and menaceens the availability of livelihood in the company, it is accordingly apposite to raise quenched this consider so as to carry to the awareness and inferiorstanding of crowd the signification of a amiable unroving scheme and environmental sense.

  1. Purpose of the Consider

The purpose of the consider is chiefly on global say modify and its contact on livelihood insure in Nigeria chiefly in Ogun say. It earn prove the causes and inference of the rarity of say modify and how it has generously improbable the availability of livelihood in Ogun say.

1.8 Secretiveness of the Consider

The secretiveness to this consider has been inaccessibility to realitys, interval involvement in unplanned activities such as ground discussions, seminars and so on.

  1. Methodology of the Consider

Secondary fountains of realitys shcomplete be occupied in this is-sue and they include; apt books relating the subject-matter, newspaper, narrative doctrines, magazines, encyclopaedias and the internet shcomplete be made truth of. Pristine fountains of realitys would so be truthd as the subject-matter of consider is a slow rarity and is tranquil in accident on daily premise and so the possessions would be elaborate by visits to the bucolic areas of Ogun says where unroving usages are happening and so, pristine tools would be applied as interviews would be conducted and questionnaires would be arranged.

  1. Sources of Realitys Collection

Secondary fountains of realitys are occupied in this is-sue and they include; apt books relating the subject-matter, newspaper, narrative doctrines, magazines, encyclopaedias and the internet shcomplete be made truth of. Pristine fountains of realitys would so be truthd as the subject-matter of consider is a slow rarity and is tranquil in accident on daily premise.

  1. Sources of Realitys Collection

The possessions of global say modify are elaborate by common visits to the bucolic areas of Ogun says where unroving usages are happening and so, pristine tools would are applied as interviews would be conducted and questionnaires would be arranged.

Interviews are conducted with the proxy of tillage in Ogun Say; Mrs Ronke Shokefun and the proxy of environment; Dr Lanre Tejuoso.

  1. Techniques of Realitys Anatomy

Descriptive mould of realitys anatomy is occupied in this design is-sue as am going to be describing rarity that is in creature. Descriptive course of realitys anatomy describes schemeatically the accident, qualities, characteristics of a attached population, smootht or area of profit as accidentually and precisely as practicable to offer answers to questions asked by the tenor of consider. This consider describes the smoothts of global say modify and how it has charmed a main feature in inquireing livelihood insure.

  1. Outcord Of Consider

This examination is made up of five provisions and each proconfidence analyses the subjoined:

Proconfidence individual focuses on the commendatory feature of the examination is-sue which discusses the subjoined: enhancement of consider, declaration of tenor, examination questions, notion of consider, purpose and secretiveness of consider, extrinsics of the consider, examination courseology and so on.

Proconfidence two attempts a learning critique and discusses the hypothetical framework. In this proconfidence we earn be analysing prior arguments that feel been laid quenched by scholars in the arena of this consider and so be using a thematic make to acceleration raise our inferiorstanding of the rarity of this consider. The learning critique feature of this proconfidence accelerations the examinationer to reslow with the skilled is-sues and writings in the arena of consider period the theoretic frameis-sue accelerations the examinationer ignoble his examination on a inequitable assumption that is in cord and accelerations to raise illustrate his examination.

Proconfidence three is an balanceview of global say modify and its commodities on livelihood and livelihood insure that is the elder modifys that feel been habitd past the fife of say modify in Nigeria chiefly in Ogun Say. So, how it has disrupted the mouldation and arrangement of livelihood in the company focusing chiefly on the possessions of global say modify and livelihood insure in Ogun say,

Proconfidence impure focuses on the analyses of realitys collected and thoroughgoinggoing explacrowd of the products gotten from the statistical realitys.

Proconfidence five attempts epitome of the consider and makes admonition, it so concludes the is-sue.


Ansel, E. & Taofeeq A. (2010).”Challenges of Unroving Harmonizeation to Say Modify in Nigeria” a Synthesis from the Learning », Arena Actions Science Ments [Online], Vol. 4, 2010, retrieved on 17 December 2012 from 4.

Apata, T.G. (2011) “Commodities of global say modify on Nigerian tillage: An experimental anatomy” CBN narrative of applied statistics, size 2 reckon1 pp.31-45.

Ayinde, O. Abundantie, M. & Olatunji, G. (2011). “Possessions of say modify on unroving productivity in Nigeria: A Co- integration Model Approach” Narrative of Anthropological Ecology size 35 reckon 3, pp.189- 194.

Medugu, N. (2012) “Nigeria and Global Say Modify upshots” as retrieved on the 28th of August 2013, from the website

Odjugo, A.O. (2011) “Say modify and global warming: the Nigerian perspective” narrative of sustainable quenchedaugmentation and environmental refuge, size 1 reckon 1 pp.6- 17.

Odjugo, A.O. (2010). “Regional Manifestation Of say modify in Nigeria” narrative of geography and sayal planning size 3 reckon 6, pp.142-150.

Oyinbo, O, Rekwot, G.Z, Ugbagbe, O.O (2013). “Socio- Economic Implications Of Say Modify On Livelihood Insure And Livelihood in Nigeria : A Desk Critique. Department of Unroving and Economics and Bucolic Sociology Faculty Of Tillage/ Institute Control Unroving Examination. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Yusuf, N. (2012) “Say modify, political transition and Nigeria’s economic quenchedgrowth” narrative of intergeneral NGO size7, reckon 2, pp.35-38.

Say Modify; Defy Control Nigeria’s Livelihood Insure retrieved mould

General Planning Commission, Nigeria’s confidence 20: 2020, October 2009.

General Aeronautics and Space Administration. Global Say Modify; Vital signs of the planet, July 2013.



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