Downstream Petroleum Industry

Downstream – From Refinery to Customer The downstream sector encompasses the refining, storage, dispensation and chaffering of petroleum results: •Refining Way: Undigested grease is wayed and accomplished into more advantageous results; •Storage: The results from the refining way are stored at repositorys via pipeline, plant (trucks & rebuke) and main (barge/vessel). These storage facilities are to-boot denominated tank farms or engagementinals •Dispensation and Chaffering: Petroleum results are as sorted from storage precipitations to the purpose-user immediately or through vpurpose extinguishedlets
The senior results effected by a refinery are, Kerosene, Premium Motor Spirit (“PMS” – Fogoline), Automotive Fog Grease (Diesel), Fuel Greases, Liquefied Petroleum Fog (LPG), Lubricating Greases, Naphtha and Tar Figure 1. – Schematic Representation of the Downstream Occupation ? The Nigerian Downstream Sector The Federal Government of Nigeria (“FGN”) sundericipates in the activities of the grease diligence (upstream and downstream) as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as actively supervising it due to its strategic weight to the dispensation.
In the downstream diligence, FGN governs and sundericipates through the aftercited agencies / bodies: Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (“NNPC”) –NNPC has agencys and agencyal curiosity-bestead in refining, petrochemicals, result manner and chaffering. NNPC has nine wholly-owned subsidiaries, span somewhat owned subsidiaries and nineteen associated companies that govern the upstream and downstream activities.

Those apt to the downstream occupation are the Pipecourse & Results Chaffering Concourse (“PPMC), Kaduna Refining & Petrochemicals Concourse Limited (“KRPC”), Warri Refining & Petrochemicals Limited (“WRPC”) and Port Harcourt Refining & Petrochemicals Limited. Course of Petroleum Resources (“DPR”) – DPR is an instrument of the Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources and has responsibilities control the aftercited: •Issuing of enjoins and licenses control entire activities individualed with petroleum research, resultion, refining, storage, chaffering, manner and dispensation; Acting as an origination control the enforcement of the conditions of the petroleum Act, NNPC Art or any other order. Petroleum Results Pricing Regulatory Origination (PPPRA) – The PPPRA came to entity from a Special Committee that was mentiond up to critique Petroleum Results Minister and Dispensation (SCRPPSD) drawn from uncertain stakeholders and other curiosity-bestead collocations to behold into the problems of the downstream petroleum sector. The sunders of PPPA are: •To mention the pricing prudence of petroleum results; To govern the minister and dispensation of petroleum results •To fashion an notice databank through liaison with entire apt agencies to fit the making of informed and realistic decisions on pricing policies •To ordinary volatilities in petroleum results charges, eligibleness ensuring steady profits to operators •To found parameters and codes of guide control entire operators in the downstream sector. Petroleum Equalisation Stock (PEF) – The PEF stock consultation was founded to weigh the enravishment require arising from the dispensation of petroleum results to entire compressiveness of the province i. . the require of enravishmenting results from fountain to sharp-purpose of sales. This is to close that petroleum results are made beneficial in entire vpurpose extinguishedlets at even charges in Nigeria, and to escape shortage of petroleum results. Petroleum Subsidy Stock (PSF) – is a pool of stocks budgeted by FGN to stabilise the private charges of petroleum results aggravate the sublimation in interpolitical undigested and results charges. CBN is the keeper of the stock, eligibleness PPPRA administers it.
Claims from / acquittal into the stock is subjected to duly authorized employment of results lifted extinguished of the prevailing repository and sold in-course with recommended public chaffer charges. ? Chaffering Companies The Nigerian downstream diligence is middle of span collocations of chaffering companies: Senior Chafferers – The companies in this colprecipitation conceive AP Plc, Congrease Plc, Mobil Grease Plc, OANDO Plc, Aggregate Nigeria Plc and Chevron Grease Nigeria Plc and accounted control 71% of aggregate petroleum results sold. They suit to exchange contortment denominated Senior Grease Chafferers Contortment of Nigeria (MOMAN).
Defiant Chafferers – The Defiant chafferers, comprises amply eligible petroleum chaffering companies. The FGN introduced the Defiant Chaffering Plan in 1978 consequently of petroleum results shortage of the 1970s and the failure of qualified siege by senior chaffering companies in the grassy areas. This led to the foundment of the Defiant Chafferers Contortment of Nigeria (IPMAN) in 1982. Membership is public to entire defiant chafferer duly licensed and authorised to result-an-effect by the NNPC or other exppurpose organisation in admonish of this sunder.
The exchange colprecipitation of these companies is referred to as the defiant Chafferers Contortment of Nigeria (IPMAN). Examples of Defiant chafferers are Zenon Petroleum, Consummate Grease & Fog and Ascon Grease & Fog. OANDO Chaffering Limited (“OML”) Oando Chaffering Limited undivided of the companies amid the Oando Plc collocation, is a quantitative grease and fog chaffering concourse with aggravate 500 vpurpose extinguishedlets and a interchangeable clientele infamous that cuts aggravate entire diligence sectors such as manufacturing, view, grease & fog and telecommunications in Nigeria and the West Africa sub portion.
OML has been in the occupation of chaffering and minister of petroleum results since 1956. OML chaffers a enlightened place of results including Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Automotive Fog Grease (AGO to-boot unconcealed as Diesel), Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK), Aviation Turbine Kerosene(ATK), Low Pour Fuel Grease (LPFO), Lubricating Greases and Greases, Insecticides, Bitumen, Chemicals, Liquefied Petroleum Fog (LPG, to-boot unconcealed as Cooking fog) and Oando insecticide Results and Uses AGO – fuel control some vehicles and marine vessels as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as control agencying generators;
PMS – fuel control most vehicles; DPK – fuel control cooking stove and used as a solvent to result specialized results control public-way view; ATK – fuel control aircraft; LPFO – fuel control agency continuance and control heating; Lubricants – lubricating grease control vehicles and equipments; Bitumen – used in the view diligence control paving public-ways; LPG – used as cooking and heating fog. Courses The courses in OML can be disposeified inferior the aftercited: Centre – Vend, Interchangeable, Chaffering, Agencys & Logistics and Engineering & Engagementinal.
Stay – Finance, Corporate Employments (HR, HCM, Lawful and Procurement & Employments), ICA, EHSQ, Employment Standards and Corporate & Chaffering Communications. ? Vpurpose Occupation Government and sales of Oando results to customers via sales extinguishedlets (aggravate 500) nationenlightened is the sbelow of the vpurpose course. The sales rendezvous is centred on the Aggregate White Results (PMS, AGO and HHK), eligibleness Lubricants, Liquefied Petroleum Fog (LPG) and Insecticide sales stipulate a variegated wealth fountain control the team. Structure
Sales is governd by Branch Governrs located aggravate the province, with each having calling aggravate sundericular territories referred to as branches. Their activities are coordinated by Branch Coordination Governrs and the course is led by the Chief Sales Employmentr – Vend, with aggravateentire calling control entire activities. Vpurpose Extinguishedlets •Concourse Owned Employment Situation (“COSS”) – The situations inferior this dispose are owned by OML and dealers are appointed to result-an-effect the situations on OML’s bestead. •Third Sundery Owned – These are extinguishedlets owned by third sunderies, which convey OML’s colour and disgrace.
OML’s main calling is to minister these extinguishedlets with petroleum results and on their sbelow the owners of the extinguishedlets concur to result-an-effect in harmony to standards concurd by twain sunderies. There are span types of third sundery extinguishedlets: oGallonage – The situations and equipment inferior this dispose are easily owned by the third sunderies, eligibleness OML disgraces the extinguishedlets and minister results to it. oLoan Bestowal and Equipment (“LDE”) – Here, OML stipulates equipments such as pumps, generators and canopies, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as disgraceing and minister of results.
The vpurpose extinguishedlets to-boot profit as occupation opportunities via Non-Fuel Wealth (NFR) activities (such as Quick Employment Restaurants) that maximize the profits on shareholders sieges, correct asdetermined utilisation and maximize our medium-long engagement consummate gains. Interchangeable Course The centre sbelow of the interchangeable course is the sale of results (AGO, PMS, DPK, ATK, LPFO, Lubricants, Bitumen and LPG) to enlightened employment purpose users hinged on fruitful correlativeness government. Sales are usually made in dimension to clients most repeatedly on pre-determined exchange engagements plea.
Structure Sales is governd by Branch Governrs located aggravate the province, with each having calling aggravate sundericular territories referred to as branches. Their activities are coordinated by Interchangeable Employment Governrs, infamousd in the culmination employment in Lagos. The course is led by the Chief Sales Employmentr, with aggravateentire calling control the activities aloft as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as control the below-mentioned specialized individuals: •Marine Individual – sale of petroleum results to (and government of correlativeness) upstream grease & fog companies as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as their employment stipulaters; Aviation Individual – sale of ATK and government of correlativeness with exhilaration. Employments The interchangeable course extend a arplace of employments in adduction to the results it chaffers as it realized that customers deficiency greatly more than honest the results. Examples of such employments conceive: Vendor Governd Catalogue (“VMI”) Plan – The Oando In-Stay plan (our in-house pattern of the VMI) is a instrument of optimizing customers minister association, whereby Oando becomes binding control maintaining the catalogue equalize of petroleum results at its customers’ precipitation.
The senior profit of this to the customer is that it can rendezvous on its centre sbelow eligibleness Oando governs petroleum results catalogue. Control Oando, the VMI plan entireows it to close Oando Main Situation – This is a Ship-to-Shore and Shore-to-Ship employment situation that stipulates fuels and lubricants control shipping companies, marine logistics companies playing in the Niger-Delta coastcourse as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as temper employments controlms providing stay to the upstream research and resultion companies playing in profound impart coastal shores of Nigeria.
Minister Contract – This employment entireows customers the convenience to relish a fairly perpetual charge regime at a committed employment aggravate a continuance of date. It is a mitigated controlm of In-stay eligible control customers whose agencys cannot enjoin liberal catalogue conduct aggravate. Chaffering The centre sbelow of the chaffering course is to originate occupation deals and stipulate platforms to empower the sales courses (vpurpose & interchangeable) fruitfully terminate their goals and objectives. Structure The course is led by the Culmination, Chaffering with aggravateentire calling control the aftercited individuals:
Lubricants Individual: The Lubricants individual is binding control chaffering Oando’s lubricants by creating result awareness through chaffering elevations and staying sales incite of lubricants in course with Oando’s goals and objectives. The individual to-boot develops a noble parts technical sales stay sbelow eligibleness ensuring result virtue impudence, require government and employment bestowal to customers. A centre calling of this individual is always identifying and initiating new/additional result courses control uncertain target consumer chaffers.
LPG Individual: – The LPG Individual is largely aimed at sourcing control result, providing stay and devising innovative selling methods to the sales team to close they engage their employment and edge targets as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as satisfying their customers’ needs. The team to-boot stipulates the sales team with chaffer knowledge to close that they strategically positioned to constitute sales. The individual, in restoration, profits as an interface betwixt the sales team and other stay individuals amid the controlm i. e. Logistics, CCU, Engineering and EHSQ.
Non-Fuel Wealth (NFR) Individual: – The Non-Fuels Wealth (NFR) individual is a strategic leadership plain to completion the dowdy edges on sales of fuel results and tap into the emerging opportunities of Non-fuel occupation from Vpurpose extinguishedlets. Non-fuel extendings in vpurpose extinguishedlets can to-boot profit as a customer drag to acception fuel sales. Some NFR extendings conceive: Quick Employment Restaurants (“QSR”), Automatic Teller Machines, Rent subscription from latent issue (warehouses and employments), Income from Telecom Mast sites, revamp and acception lube cove rentals & lubes subscription to situations and car absterge agency.
Dimension Results Individual – The Dimension individual is binding control developing and executing chaffering plans to stay the sales team in achieving their objectives in the sales of Bitumen and LPFO. The individual stipulates advantageous notice abextinguished the view sector of the dispensation, chaffer trends, competitors’ activities and consumer preferences that helps in importation occupation decisions. It to-boot stipulates back-purpose stay control decorous the virtue of employment bestowal in our Vendor Governd Catalogue (VMI) concept. ? Agencys & Logistics Course
The Agencys & Logistics (“O&L”) course is largely binding control result sourcing and dispensation to customers. O&L is to-boot binding control result storage via warehouses and LPG Plants, and Lubricants blending via the Kaduna Lubricants Plant (“KLP”). Government of results at the engagementinals is touchd by Engineering & Engagementinals course. Structure The course is structured into filthy individuals, each with a culmination binding control activities in the individual. Aggravateentire courseal calling is with the General Governr, Agencys & Logistics. Logistics oInbound – minister planning and result receipt; oExchange Procurement & Results – result sourcing; oOutbound – touchs result ordinary from NNPC repositorys; oFleet – Government of correlativeness with enravishmenters. •Customer Care Individual oScheduling – touch bestowal beseech and schedule the trucks; oDispatch – supply the trucks control trips; oFleet – employment with the enravishmenters; oCentire Center – touch inquiries and complaints. •Warehouse & LPG Plant oWarehouse – storage precipitations control Lubricants and Oando Insecticide precedently last dispensation to customers.
Lubricants are ordinary at the warehouses from KLP, eligibleness with Oando Insecticide (currently entity quantitative), result is ordinary into Apapa control dispensation other warehouses. Currently, OML has 14 warehouses aggravate the county. oLPG Filing Plants – storage precipitations control LPG. Currently OML has 7 plants aggravate the province. •Kaduna Lube Plant – consists of span blending plants twain located in Kaduna with wholly parts of 55 favorite litres per annum submissive uncertain place of lubricant results control interchangeable and vpurpose customers. Engagementinals & Engineering Course
The Engineering & Engagementinals course is binding control managing infrastructural issue aggravate consultation additive of the agencys at storage engagementinals. Structure There are span main individuals: •Terminals – are storage precipitations (odious of warehouses and LPG Plants) where results are ordinary, stored and however as sorted. The aftercited are the engagementinals owned by OML: oApapa Engagementinal 1; oApapa Engagementinal 2; oApapa Joint Venture (with Aggregate Nigeria Plc); oOnne Engagementinal, Port Harcourt; oPort Harcourt Engagementinal. Each of these precipitations is culminationed by a Engagementinal Governr TM who reports to the Culmination of Engagementinals & Engineering.
OML to-boot stores result at third sundery precipitations such as Lister. Currently, Oando Engagementinals has parts control tenure uncertain results as follows: oPMS – 80 Favorite Litres; oAGO – 33 Favorite Litres; oLPFO – 5. 67 Favorite Litres; oHHK – 5 Favorite Litres; oBitumen – 10,000 Metric Tonnes. •Engineering – project of consummate projects and means-of-aid of equipments and facilities. The activities in this individual are collocationed as shown below: oProject – aggravatesees consummate projects short than N100M oVpurpose Netemployment Means-of-aid – aggravatesees means-of-aid and deployment of vpurpose extinguishedlet equipment Vpurpose Facility Means-of-aid – aggravatesees means-of-aid of vpurpose extinguishedlet infrastructure oTerminal & Repository Means-of-aid – aggravatesees means-of-aid of facilities and equipments at engagementinals and repositorys Stay Courses Environment, Health, Safety, Security and Virtue Impudence (“EHSSQ”) – impoverish agencyal and property require, elucidate down date, close aggregate submission with regulatory and statutory requirements, rescue universe dispose virtue results and employments to repair customer compensation, eligibleness guarantying sustainable crop in course with the Oando longing.
Internal Control & Audit (“ICA”) – safeguarding OML’s issue, ensuring agencyal aptitude, ensuring submission with conducive laws and regulations and ensuring the faultlessness and reliability of financial reporting. Employment Standards – closes and monitors employment standards aggravate uncertain precipitations. Finance – stipulate OML with financial stay control occupation and agencyal planning. OML Finance (culmination employment) is divided into three main individuals namely: oTreasury; oConduct Notice System; Financial Control. Corporate Employments – stays OML occupation via the aftercited employments: oLawful – stipulate OML with require-fruitful and fruitful lawful employments stay to and govern the inborn risks in OML’s occupationes; oProcurement – further OML in the wages of issue and employments; oHuman Refountain – stipulate OML with fruitful populace government solutions. Chaffering Communications – aid OML’s chaffering leaderships through strategic result elevation and sales elevation.

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