End of Life and Palliative Care for Patients with HIV/AIDS


  • Surendra Ramkissoon
  • Rishi Gajadhar


During the 1980s, there was a speedy extension in the sum of HIV/AIDS plights coercion which there was trivial matter coercion twain the singular and their source. Howcontinually with the presence of antiretroviral therapy, there came a drastic substitute in the vivacityspan of these resigneds, delaying release and restoring the confluence of having an middle vivacity.

This was refertelling extraneously imperfection as there became an adventitious extension in the sum of complications of therapy, including degradation and invisible vex, suffering and self-containedness from friends and source. This tractate understandks to bring-in a curriculum to be conservationd in schools of nursing exotericly to school submits in trailing encircling soothing and resolve of vivacity trouble coercion singulars with HIV/AIDS. It has been enunciate in row with the World Vigor Organization exoteric scales of Soothing Trouble coercion Singulars with HIV and targeted internals convocation the wants of the client and source homogeneous.

Southern Union Avow Nursing School:

Resolve of Vivacity and Soothing Trouble coercion Singulars with HIV/AIDS Curriculum:


The Southern Union Avow Nursing School is a dynamic and beingifold academic similarity of grant and learners where Undergraduate Nursing learners effort collaboratively to gpursuit generous pledged nursing professionals coercion beingifold flattens of nursing beingners. The Institution has pledged to produce justifitelling acquirementsal programs, innovative conservationful arrangements, and services to the similarity. We aspire to be the understandd-plot of Rarity coercion professional nursing troubleers at the exoteric and regional flattens.


Our band-arms is to produce an innovative, caring and multicultural environment in which grant, learners and staff effort concertedly to beget and transmit comprehension, prudence and prizes to aid sort of vivacity and vigor coercion exhibit and controlthcoming generations.To ameliorate consider the singular multiformity and entailment of Trinidad and Tobago, the SUSNS is committed to increasing the scale of vigor trouble where learners beingner in a pluralistic companionship, which is characterized by increasing gregarious and cultural multiformity. This requires that submits honor cultural differences and acnotice the lawful of dainty in-reference-to vigor trouble posteritys and resolve of vivacity trouble.


Each singular has special lawfuls and is praiseworthy of honor with compliments to his/her feature impost, concessions, and wants at the resolve of vivacity (Smith, 1998). The vigor consumer, who is served by nursing, has a lawful to locomotively join-in and collaborate with vigor trouble producers in his/her contemplation of trouble (Taylor, 1998). The submit is continually troubleful of the consumer’s lawfuls to be troubled coercion and troubled encircling, in direct to property a consummation flatten of wellness (Spence-Cagle, 2006).The SUSNS was founded on the concession that pursuit are singular and hold the lawful to the integrity of their special, ethnic, and cultural identities. Elevatepast they accept the lawful to advance vigor trouble that is culturally congruent and honors their roles as keep-apartners in vigor preferment and distemper interruption (Juckett, 2005). Anthropological caring is understandn as the entity of nursing, built on the announce that each peculiar has native price and prize. Nursing trouble accordingly focuses on preventative vigor acquirements and elaboration-fixed nursing interventions coercion singulars and communities (Liu, 2005). The SUSNS program is committed to retaining a dynamic curriculum that evolves in confutation to the changing demands of exoteric and controlthcoming vigor trouble wants in nursing, at the persomal, avow, exoteric, or interexoteric flattens.

Centre Prizes:

Our band-arms is cheered by four centre prizes:

  1. Professionalism:

To enumerateenance the first ghostly scales with accountforce and transparency

  1. Continuous mendment:

To be affirmative in our amusement coercion rarity and contobject to re-invent ourselves to remain exoteric and relevant

  1. Empowerment:

To be ambassadors coercion our amusement of rarity and be imperative coercion creating an compensating and excited experiment (Gilbert, 2003)



The lean of this sppurpose is to dispose the acquirements of comprehension to mobject the sort of trouble delivered to singulars with HIV/AIDS at the resolve of their vivacity. This compatforce would devote to beingner in a multiplicity of vigortrouble settings, resigneds opposing the wellness complaint continuum, and resigneds opposing the vivacityspan, in collaboration with the interprofessional team (Singleton& Linton, 2007).


HIV/AIDS has unnatural continuallyy continent, and continues to inoculate enumerateries that unintermittently believed that they command be immune to its waste. The bane exhibits an unmatched browbeating to anthropological enunciatement and requires sustained operation and desire term commitment of complete keep-apartners in vigorcare. The rationale coercion proposing the integration of resolve of vivacity and soothing trouble in Baccalaureate of Nursing Acquirements is consequently submits accept been on the frontrow in responding to this distemper, providing hands on trouble to resigneds, sustaining the enunciatement of resigned-centered trouble and providing ease to families on a daily caconservation (Institute of Physic, 2003). Since cultural multiformity is prevalent in the vigor trouble adjustification of Trinidad and Tobago, it is compulsory coercion efforters to earn propertyive trailing and acquirements in resolve of vivacity and soothing trouble to foundation a suittelling harmony with their resigneds. Elevatemore, this curriculum includes the order to enucleate vigor disparities, so that submits would be correspondent to keep-akeep-apart in a global environment, and in society with other vigortrouble disciplines (Gillespie & Brown, 1996). This order would be exhalation through the first scales of trailing in the interruption, assessment and matter of suffering and other corporeal, psychogregarious and imembodied problems associated with the HIV/AIDS bane.

Sppurpose Description:

Shortcomings in medical and nursing trouble at the resolve of vivacity in Trinidad and Tobago and growing avowal of the unexhalation wants of resigneds and their families who oppose solemn vivacity-threatening and ultimate complaintes has fuel ample view encircling resolve of vivacity trouble. Although soothing trouble has been growing twain persomally and globally among fantastic years, there is calm?} deficiencies in the beingner and unexhalation wants of frequent resigneds with HIV/AIDS. The resolve of this sppurpose is to produce a wealth to establish the comprehension and cece of nursing learners in delivering recognizen, peel and sort trouble to singulars with HIV/AIDS throughextinguished the protraction of their complaint and at the resolve of their vivacity. This Program conquer too aid learners to enunciate an view coercion their accept cultural identities and gpursuit critically self-reflective in their orientation internal differences in the cultural identities of others as defined by pursuit, ethnicity, gender, adjust, complaint and sexual orientation (Ayonrinde, 2003).

Module 1: The Concept of Resolve of Vivacity and Soothing Trouble

Knowledge Extinguishedcomes:

By the resolve of this keep-akeep-apart the learners conquer be publishing to:

  1. Define resolve of vivacity trouble and soothing trouble.
  2. Describe the expertnessful-matter of resigneds approaching resolve of vivacity.
  3. Outrow the social vigor approaches to soothing trouble.
  4. Compare and Contrast soothing trouble and hospice trouble.
  5. Outrow the role of the soothing trouble submit in the expertnessful-matter of HIV&AIDS.
  6. Discuss the narrative of soothing trouble in Trinidad and Tobago.

Module 2: Messepoch with Resigned and Source.

Knowledge Extinguishedcomes:

By the resolve of this keep-akeep-apart the learners conquer be publishing to:

  1. Discuss the concept of messepoch in affinity to soothing and resolve of vivacity trouble
  2. Describe the Beingner of Violation Unwell Notification.
  3. Demonstrate the cece to imkeep-apart propertyively with resigned and source in providing acquirements.
  4. Understand when to retire matter options and imkeep-apart this to the source.
  5. Determine the exhalationhod and timing of violation the unwell notification to source (Back & Curtis, 2002).

Module 3: Suffering and Symptom Expertnessful-treatment.

Knowledge Extinguishedcomes:

By the resolve of this keep-akeep-apart the learners conquer be publishing to:

  1. Assess the flatten of suffering experimentd by clients with HIV
  2. Utilize comprehension by implementing expertnessful-matter of clients experiencing suffering with HIV
  3. Understand the characteristics and matter of nociceptive and neuropathic suffering in HIV
  4. Outrow drawbacks fullied to suffering expertnessful-matter in HIV resigneds
  5. Discuss underlying causes of dyspnea at the resolve of vivacity
  6. Explain what is concerned in the assessment and matter of dyspnea in HIV resigneds
  7. Understand the submits role in beingaging the resigned with dyspnea in the developed hours of vivacity

Module 4: Psychogregarious and Psychiatric Posteritys.

Knowledge Extinguishedcomes:

By the resolve of this keep-akeep-apart the learners conquer be publishing to:

  1. Define Psychogregarious Trouble.
  2. Internalize what is concerned in completeowing the resigneds to accept a cheerful release.
  3. Determine what is meant by foundationing price and understandmliness of the resigned.
  4. Acnotice the signification of source and imembodied leaders (too other societal foundation assemblys) in the resigned’s vivacity.
  5. Explore mismisappropriate nursing operations concerned in caring coercion the ultimately dislike resigned.

Module 5: Immateriality and Culture in Soothing Trouble:

Knowledge Extinguishedcomes:

By the resolve of this keep-akeep-apart the learners conquer be publishing to:

  1. Describe immateriality.
  2. Discuss the Task of Imembodied Trouble.
  3. Discuss the apprehensions of Release and Latter.
  4. Explain propertys of culture in Soothing trouble.
  5. Discuss the interoperation betwixt expectation and cross-cultural message.

Plight Study 1: Messepoch with Resigned and Source.

Type of Activity: Role Play

Exercise: Violation Unwell Notification

Time: 20 minutes

Scenario: You are the submit. Mary Jane has a clinic provision today. She is a 30-year-old wobeing living with HIV coercion the spent 5 years. She has been on beingifold HAART regimens balance that unimpaired period with non-compliance has been an ongoing posterity. Her viral arraign has now been increasing and T-Cell enumerate trending declining. On her developed scrutinize you did a hindrance testing to understand what command be going on. Fixed on the results, she command be extinguished of options coercion HAART. Foldeclining the unwell notification protocol to publish the Mary Jane this notification.

Plight Study 2: Immateriality and Culture in Soothing Trouble:

Type of Activity: Argument

Time: 45-60 minutes

Purpose: To entelling learners to utilizing messepoch expertnesss opposing the cultural continuum.

Scenario: As the submit attending to an African-American being latter of AIDS, you and the medical team unite with his source to update them of his plight. The team has firm that elevate matter is trifling and has no enacted extinguishedcome coercion his exhibit plight. The resigned’s parents and siblings urge that continuallyything be manufactured inattentive, and gpursuit moody when you and the team tell it would be trifling. What do you want to recognize? What conquer you do and tell in this site? Sppurpose Policies:

Accoutrements Policy:

Punctuality and Regularity is an redundant keep-akeep-apart of this spend. Points conquer too be awarded fixed on locomotive keep-apartnership and contributions to adjust argument during recitations and lectures. If you misunderstand a adjust coercion any discuss, it is your part to confront extinguished the assignments, the embodied prepared, and any other acquirements that command accept been produced during the misunderstanded adjust. There is categorically no exclusion to this. An accoutrements of 75% narrowness is beingdatory coercion this sppurpose (SANE Learner handbook 2010/2011)


There are 2 plight studies coercion argument. An unimpaired meeting conquer be given to this argument. The instructor’s role is that of a president with the learners identifying and discussing their views and thoughts encircling the plight. There is no lawful or evil-doing answers in these exercises as we are past spirited in meaningful contributions that either infer to the controvert or propel it in a fantastic line. If you confront it uncomforttelling to discourse up in adjust encircling an posterity, we submit scrutinizeing of the zealot in duty hours to aide in efforting on this skdislike of assembly argument (CMU, 2013).

Confluence of the Learners:

It is expected that complete learners conquer sppurpose themselves in a beingner contributive to tertiary flatten knowledge. Gladden referablee that cellular phone conservation is very-much disruptive to the unimpaired adjust and is accordingly prohibited during adjust. If there is a special pitch that requires you to be contacted during adjust, gladden frame arrangements anterior to adjust (CMU, 2013).

Teaching Exhalationhodology:

  1. Plight Study
  2. Lecture / Argument (45 to 60 minutes).
  3. Power Point and Video Exhibitations.
  4. Handouts on HIV/AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago.
  5. Oral exhibitations on a Violation Unwell Notification to Resigneds and Source.
  6. Role plays on Improving Interspecial Affinitys.
  7. Guided fieldtrip to Medical Elaboration Facility of Trinidad and Tobago.

Assessment / Evaluation Exhalationhods:

  1. Quiz
  2. Singular Assignment
  3. Mid Term Exam
  4. Assembly Problem Fixed Knowledge Assignment
  5. Final Exam

Required Reading:

  1. A Clinical Guide to Foundationive and Soothing Trouble coercion HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa


Reference Texts:

  1. Soothing Nursing: Opposing the Spectrum of Trouble Edited by Elaine Stevens, Susan Jackson, Stuart Milligan
  2. Soothing Trouble Nursing: Sort Trouble to the Resolve of Vivacity, Third Edition. Edited by Marianne LaPorte Matzo, Deborah Witt Sherman


According to WHO (2007), HIV/AIDS exhibits with singular resolve of vivacity posteritys and challenges. Generally, the younger past marginalized or members of adolescence assemblys accept been unnatural. Although main enunciatements accept been made in rival this distemper in conditions of medication and matter, there is calm?} a desire method to go as it pertains to resolve of vivacity and soothing trouble. It is compulsory to mind that as vivacity is extended, symptoms of suffering, degradation and immateriality conquer tantalize the singular from the period of peculiarity until release.

This curriculum produces an in profundity behold at the main posteritys exclusive HIV/AIDS and soothing/resolve of vivacity trouble as it affects the global similarity. Complete vigor trouble producers must contobject to secure that advance to this peel of ample trouble extraneously apprehension and partiality is made availtelling to complete living with this distemper. Accordingly this curriculum has been tailored to be bring-ind into schools of nursing to school trailing submits on the signification of completeowing a peculiar a easetelling resolve of vivacity and release with understandmliness.

Grading Scale


Percentepoch of Final Grade

2 Plight Study Arguments

10 %

1 Singular Assignment


1 Midterm


1 Assembly PBL


Accoutrements and Keep-aparticipation


Final Exam






4 credits



3 credits



2 credits



1 credit



0 credits


Ayonrinde, O. (2003). Signification of cultural sensitivity in hygienic transactions: Considerations coercion vigortrouble producers. Disforce Expertnessful-matter and Vigor Extinguishedcomes, 11(4), 234-246

Back, A. (1998). The Beingner of Violation Unwell Notification. University of Washington Department of Physic Ethics in Physic Retrieved http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/bioethics/topics/badnws.html

Back, A. & Curtis, J.R. (2002). Communicating unwell notification. Western Journal of Physic 176: 1-5.

Carnigie-Mellon University. (2013). The Syllabus: Sppurpose Policies / Confluences. Retrieved https://homeworkacetutors.com//write-my-paper/cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/syllabus/samples-policiesexpectations/

Fox, R. (2001). Soothing trouble in the epoch of HIV/AIDS: The elaboration perspective. J R Soc Med 94(9): 428.

Gilbert, J. (2003). Principles and recommended scales coercion cultural cece acquirements of vigor trouble professionals. Retrieved https://homeworkacetutors.com//write-my-paper/calendow.org/uploadedfiles/principles_standards_cultural_competence.pdf

Grady, P., Knebel, A. & Draper, A. (2001). Resolve-of-vivacity posteritys in HIV/AIDS: The elaboration perspective. J R Soc Med 94(9): 479-82. PubMed Abstract.

Greenberg, B., McCorkle, R., Vlahov, D. & Selwyn, P. (2000). Soothing trouble coercion HIV in the bound of HAART. J Urb Hlth 77(2): 150-65. PubMed Abstract.

Grothe, T. & Brody, R. (1995). Soothing trouble coercion HIV/AIDS. J Pcomplete Trouble 11(2): 48-9. PubMed Abstract.

Gillespie, J. & Brown, K.M. (1996). Promoting cultural cece in the baccalaureate nursing learner.South Carolina Submit, 3(4): 22.

Vigor Wealths Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau. (2000). Soothing and foundationive trouble. HRSA Trouble Operation 2000(July): 1-4. F

Fox, R. (2001). Soothing trouble in the epoch of HIV/AIDS: The elaboration perspective. J R Soc Med 94(9): 428.

Institute of Physic, (2003). Unequal Matter. What vigortrouble producers want to

recognize encircling racial and ethnic disparities in vigorcare. Exoteric Academy Press.

Washington, D.C.

Juckett, G. (2005). Cross-cultural physic.Journal of American Source Physician, Vol. 72(11), 2267-2275.

Liu, G. Z. (2005). Best Beingners: Enunciateing Cross-cultural Cece from a Chinese Perspective. In J.H. Stone (Ed.), Culture and disability: providing culturally suittelling services (pp.187-201). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sepoch Socialations.

Selwyn, P. (2001). Soothing trouble wants of medically-underserved peculiars with HIV/AIDS in an elegant interior city. Retrieved: apha.confex.com/apha/129am/techprogram/paper_31243.htm.

Selwyn, P., & Arnold, R. (1998). From lot to tragedy: The changing meanings of vivacity, release, and AIDS. Annals of Internal Physic 129(11): 899-902.

Singleton, G., & Linton, C. (2007). Facilitator’s Guide coercion A Field Guide coercion Achieving

Equity in Schools: Courageous Conversations encircling Pursuit Corwin Press.

Spence-Cagle, C. (2006). Learner conception of culturally and ghostlyly correspondent trouble: Implications coercion nursing curricula. Nursing Acquirements Perspectives, 27(6): 308-314.

Sserunkuma, R., Otolok-Tanga, E. & Kasule, K. (1998). Living with and latter of AIDS: Today’s substitutes. Interexoteric Conference on HIV/AIDS 1998, Retrieved http://depts.washington.edu/pallcare/training/curriculum_pdfs/OverviewModule.pdf

Stajduhar, K. & Davies, B. (1998). Soothing trouble at home: Considerions on HIV/AIDS source troublegiving experiments. J Pcomplete Trouble 14(2): 14-22.

World Vigor Organisation. (2007). Internals all advance: scaling up anteriority HIV/AIDS interventions in the vigor sector. Retrieved https://homeworkacetutors.com//write-my-paper/who.int/hiv/mediacentre/universal_access_progress_report_en.pdf.

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