Examining The Cause Of Information System Failures Information Technology Essay

What are the elder motives of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manages wants? What strategies can organisations select to countenance the challenges and indicate the terminatement?

An devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance bonding to Ewusi-Mensah (1997) is “any devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice technology contrivance intentionned to as the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice recurrentitying deficiency of an coercionm”. In Momentous issues in despairing devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivances, Ewusi-Mensah(1997) recurrent that devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivances applianceation exacts collaboration of Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage staff that deploys and school on the verification of the software to solicit the contrivance, object verificationrs and administration. “It is a assemblage-oriented living-force organized and performed in teams and bondingly matter to the unpredictpower of assemblage dynamics, interactions, coordination, and despatch” ( Ewusi-Mensah ,1997).

An devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage is a recurrent of components (people, axioms, and procedures) launched unitedly to agree verificationful devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice (Senn, 1990, p8). Too, devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage (IS) is any recurrent of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice technology and nation’s activities using that technology to backup agencys, administration, and judgment-making (SEI Report, “Glossary” ). In a range sagacity, the manage devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage is frequently verificationd to recount to the ratioship betwixt nation, algorithmic recurrentityes, axioms and technology. Bondingly, the tidings is verificationd to recount devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive barely to the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice and despatch technology (ICT) an coercionm verifications, except too to the habit in which nation interact with this technology in living of transaction recurrentityes (Kroenke, D. M. 2008). An devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage holds of computers, instructions, stored grounds, nation and procedures.

A manages want betides when a manage does devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive as its exactments or when the intentiundivided of discontentment with a manage extensions to the intentiundivided that there is no plenty victuals to binder it.  Notice manage contrivance want may be as a fruit of its weakness to as verificationrs’ exactments and/or aggravateruns pertaining to budget or total interval (Yeo, K. T. 2002). Studies feel shfeel that abundant failed contrivances are aggravate budget, some by as considerconducive as 189%. May, L (1998) in “Elder motives of software want” recurrent that barely undivided-sixth (16.67%) of contrivances are perfect as schedule and amid budget. An devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage want can adduce environing financial privation, interchangeconducive misfortune, privation of clients and enrichment streams, regulatory fines or sanctions and the privation of staff morale or stakeholder obedience amid an coercionm. Examples of manage wants includes a laser decrepit to detail its target, an wake manage that fails to probe when pressed, an automated door that fails to public and object on its feel bond on vestibule, provision that detonates prematurely, and other alike provisions.

This period debatees the motives of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance wants and strategies coercionms can select to countenance the challenges and indicate terminatement.

The Standish assemblage (1995) in (Yeo, K. T. 2002) classified contrivance remainder as Pattern 1, Pattern 2 and Pattern 3. Bonding to the assemblage, 16.2%,52.7% and 31.1% of contrivances descobject into Patterns 1,2 and 3 classes respectively.

A “lucky contrivance” classified as the Pattern 1 contrivances are those that were terminatementabundantly applianceed amid the recurrent interval and budget with entire exactd features and professionality ascertained. The “challenged” contrivances classified as the Pattern 2 contrivances are those that “suffer budget aggravateruns and/ or program slips thereby decrepit to wholly terminate its contrivance polite-balanced though they are finishedd and agencyal age Pattern 3 contrivance classified as the “Impaired” contrivances are those cancelled or despairing at some apex during the fruit cycle” The Standish assemblage (1995) in (Yeo, K. T. 2002). Technical want may devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive necessarily be the caverification of contrivance impairment, closing of excerption of a technically correct Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance by object verificationrs or municipal administration accordingly fruiting in its closing of verification or underneathutilization denotes want (Yeo, K. T. 2002). From this aspect apex, Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage is said to be a socio-technical manage. Land and Hirschheim (1983) feeling an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage as “a gregarious manage that verifications devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice technology”. This can be explained in the sagacity that as a technical manage, a manage that fails in an coercionm can be terminatementabundantly applianceed in another coercionm age as a gregarious manage an Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage can be terminatementabundantly applianceed in an coercionm age the applianceation of another devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage can fruit in want (Davies G. B. et al, 1992).

Notice Manage as a pattern of socio-technical manage

The mediating concept betwixt actions and technology is recount to as devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manages.(Beynon-Davies P. 2009). The technical manage greatness holds of twain agencyal and professional features. The agencyal features devote to the technology(efficiency of the hardware or software as polite as the clanship of the technology’s verificationr interfaces) age the professional features recount to the agency referring-to to expected professionality .

Technology as a content of the technical manage recounts to hardware, software and other recountd technology. This pertains to the professionality of the manage, whether it is up or dfeel when a peculiar deficiencys to verification it.

User interfaces recounts to the associate betwixt the ethnical verificationr and the software/hardware technology (inprostrate screens, extinguishedprostrate screens, monograph inprostrate coercionms and monograph extinguishedprostrate reports). Fault rates in the transport of axioms from undivided moderation to another and the interval that verificationrs exact to behove free with the manage entire depute indicators of agency of the applianceed manage age Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice exactments as a technical manage content recounts to the power of the Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage applianceed to produce innovating capabilities than the undivided entity replaced. Careful consider of the coercionm to distinguish its devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice deficiency is requisite ( Davies G. B. et al).

The gregarious manage recounts to the features of coercionmal recurrentting which paverification in an coercionm polite-balanced as nation invade and liberty the coercionm.

The contents of this manage include; rejoinder/rejection of the technical manage, theories in verification, appraises of agency to confluence and the fruital recurrentity of the manage. Rejection or underneathutilization may be fixed on the announce that the commencement of innovating technology is instrumental to deskilling or function privation (Davies G. B. et al, 1992).

Characteristic features of Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance

Notice manage contrivances are considerconducive and labour intensive usually requiring a enormous sum of capital to appliance. Its want can caverification a enormous financial privation to an coercionm and bondingly there is deficiency coercion distant intentionning anteriorly its applianceation to indicate that desired confluences are expiration.

An devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage is a pattern of socio-technical manage which is momentous to the fife and polite-entity of companies. As a fruit, the exact technology must be deployed and the object verificationrs schoold on its verification and benefits.

Also, Brooks in Ewusi-Mensah (1997) recurrent that “IS contrivances are conceptual in recurrentity” (i.e. “it is unadulterated intention trash which is minute and unvisualizable”).

In anatomy, there are actual exposes and uncertainties such as ample contrivance greatness, fault with the innovating technology and transient devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice exactments associated with contrivances that are reserved to assess anterior to the set-extinguished of the contrivance.

IS contrivances as recurrent antecedent are assemblage oriented requiring components from unanalogous backgrounds and bondingly exact a violent appraise of coordination and distinct lengths of despatch to indicate terminatement Ewusi-Mensah (1997).

Reasons coercion Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice Manage applianceation

To extension productivity in manage to binder competitive advantage

To augment transaction agencys through the re-engineering of an organisation’s recurrentityes

Changes in activities of an organisation or in the recurrentity of the organisation.

Technological Qualifys can carry to innovating evolution recurrentityes or using choice materials in the manufacturing recurrentity

Sect of manage wants

There are immodest elder categories of Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage want bonding to Lyytinen and Hirschheim (1987). The categories are as follows;

Regularity want: “this betides when an Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance canreferconducive attributconducive be patent manifest amid an entireocated budget and/or interval schedule”. The contrivance fruit fruits in aggravatespending in twain require and interval.

Correspondence want: this betides when the objectives and contrivances of the manages contrivance are devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive expiration.

Interaction want: this is attributed to the intentiundivided of object-user habit or excerption or rejoinder of the applianceed devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage. Verificationr attitudes, axioms packets, verificationr compensation and the appraise of excerption are appraises of habit of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage habit.

Confluence want: this is the weakness of a manage to as its stakeholders’ exactment, confluences or values

Another sect of wants bonding to Ben Meadowcroft in “Why Manages fail” is;

Moneyless fruit practices: these pattern of are wants brought environing by fault in the software fruit and it includes;

Moneyless testing of program,

Making inexact assumptions as to the exactments of the manage,

Providing moneyless or incopious documentation,

Moneyless verificationr interface.

Object verificationr or entity problems: These are wants motived principally by faults on the deal-extinguished of either the object verificationr or the entity that are using/requesting the manage and they include;

Providing inexact mention coercion the manage,

Entering false axioms,

Referconducive attributconducive providing luxuriance coercion the object verificationr.

Implementation or hardware faults: These wants are those that are principally motived by hardware faults or by the entity devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive having the instrument requisite to constitute the ascertained manage possible and they include

Damaged hardware,

Badly contrivanceed hardware,

A moneyless comport betwixt the manage and the organisation.

Majors motives of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manages want

Undistinct contrivances: closing of polite defined contrivance contrivances and objectives which is clew to the terminatement of any IS contrivance fruit. There is too deficiency to narrate distinctly the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice deficiency of an coercionm and too the excerption recurrentity anteriorly attempting to usher-in an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage(Lucas in Davies G. B. et al 1992)

Imconstitutional reporting erection/Miscommunication: past the fruit of ample IS contrivances is the is-sue of a team drawn from sundry assemblages of nation with responsibilities to indicate the contrivance’s terminatement which includes IS staff, object verificationrs and considerconducive administration, there is deficiency coercion the state of distinct lengths of despatch and polite defined lengths of pattern and function unformed team components. Despatch in contrivance teams is “requisite to genus extinguished argue environing exactments of contrivance judgments unformed contrivance components” (Curtis et al 1988).

Inept/infitted carryership: Moneyless administration of the contrivance and closing of amiconducive carryership binding coercion coordination and manage, configuration of journey and making of living judgments at unanalogous appearances of the contrivance.

Moneyless technology mean or infrastructure: closing of distant technological mean deficiencyed coercion terminatementful applianceation of the skin of manages fruit entity considered. Bonding to Land in G. B. Davis et al, the absence betwixt the pauseing manage and the revival manage is requisite coercion the terminatement of an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage.

Moneyless contrivance administration: this has to do with indistant configuration manage to appraise journey and homogeneous confirm possible exposes in interval to wholeay them.

Closing of technical competence: the technological distinguish-how of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manages staff is very living to the terminatement of IS contrivances as closing of freeity with an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice technology innovating to the IS staff is contributory to IS contrivance want. If a verificationr is awry serviceconducive then the arrival of them making elder faults is extensiond ascribconducive to their closing of distinguishledge of the manage. Wants by infer of closing of luxuriance should devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive be treasured as an fault ascribconducive to the unique operator as is slight with a moneylessly contrivanceed verificationr interface, except as a misselect by the administration.

Opportunity creep: contrivances excessively stately in opportunity usually feel violenter exposes and violenter complexities and bondingly further prundivided to want. Opportunity is the judicious “blueprint” of an applianceation intention.

Defective hardware defective hardware can adduce environing weighty manage want. This ingredient is then intermittently an requisite undivided that should be producen ascribconducive importance unitedly with the further worthiest software faults. Defective hardware should be selectn into intention when contrivanceing the manages in manage to aim and classify the collision of the want. Hardware want is devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive as slight to betide as software faults except can be as baleful.

Moneyless excerption judgment of contrivance team components: the contrivance team commutation is too living coercion the terminatement of the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance.

Strategies organisations can select to indicate terminatement of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivances.

Firstly, to indicate terminatement of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivances there is deficiency coercion a distinct and polite defined IS contrivance. Every component of the IS contrivance administration team as polite as stakeholders should distinguish the peculiar devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice exactment of the coercionm as polite as how to go environing satisfying it. This is considerconducive to regulate the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice exactments appearance of the fruit recurrentity. Want in this area succeed carry to fragmented endeavors and closing of standpoint in assembling grounds to regulate the quiet of the fruit (Curtis et al 1988).

Secondly, the excerption of fitted and competent staff to accommodate as components of IS contrivance team is very living coercion terminatementful contrivance applianceation (Brooks, 1981). Team components should be those with genuine anterior experiment and who are homogeneous free with the technology entity deployed. Improved luxuriance of the object verificationrs succeed significantly classify manage wants and improve the honor of axioms stored on the computer manages. The contrivance team should hold of the most terminatementful nation of the coercionm (Nah et al, 2001). Lockheed Martin, a carrying aeronautical assemblage, recurrent that undivided of its clews to terminatement was “assembling a team choice of making and executing” qualifys exactd (Stedman, 1999)

Also, the illusion of erection on the fruital endeavor of the contrivance helps to regulate it to terminatementful total. It involves the disunion of the contrivance into appearances which helps the contrivance team genuineize what deliverables coercion each measure are and to distinguish if they feel been mannerly.

It is too considerconducive that distinct lengths of despatch be coercionmal amid the team, with lengths of pattern and responsibilities of the team components distinctly recurrent. This is considerconducive past the team components are drawn from sundry units.

Excerption of fitted carryers who succeed indicate that constitutional administration and manage practices are adhered to and enforced in the applianceation recurrentity of an Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage is living. Distant safeguards and aggravatesight by administration is requisite to indicate technical peculiarnel’s obedience with certain indusaim standards coercion reporting and practice with problems uncovered in any appearance of manage fruit. The carryer should be undivided with twain application-domain distinguishledge and software distinguishledge.

There should too be recurrent occasional asings to debate the manages fruit endeavor. A terminatementful applianceation of a contrivance is barely attainconducive when violent-plane executives bear a secure commitment to the contrivance (Davenport, 2000). Considerconducive executives at Farmland Industries demonstrated its living to contrivance team components by providing bonuses to employees and consultants.

The technological infraerection serviceconducive in a corporation deficiencys to be momentously assessed to indicate it is distant to living the skin of manage fruit that is to be applianceed. Care should be selectn devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive to launch on IS contrivance fruit until the considerconducive executives are abundantly mannerly that the corporation’s technological mean is distant. Assurance from the Administration Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice Manage administration should be selectn to classify the expose s and uncertainties associated with manage fruit is-sues.

There is deficiency coercion the subsistence of opportunity. The power to binder opportunity is recountd to intentionning and this is attainconducive coercion companies twain smentire and ample. Geishecker (1999) recurrent that Colgate-Palmolive Corporation itemised opportunity subsistence as a contributory ingredient to their terminatement. The flatten extinguished vestibule coercion the applianceation of the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance is a very considerconducive importance underneathneath opportunity subsistence. There are couple vestibulees namely the “big bang” vestibule and the progressive (phased) flattenextinguished vestibule. Twain vestibulees feel their prons and cons. Oil hercules Chevron attributes a appearanced flatten extinguished to the terminatementful applianceation of an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance. Home Depot has too terminatementabundantly applianceed diverse modules of an Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage using the appearanced flatten extinguished vestibule (Mearian, 2000). Appearanced flatten-extinguished vestibule though further high-priced and usually taking longer interval, present classifyd transaction expose (Davenport, 2000).

Inside alacrity/luxuriance is too living coercion the terminatementful applianceation of an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance. The most worthiest want ingredient chronicled was that of “alacrity coercion qualify”. Entire employees must be serviceconducive on the innovating manage in manage to verification it to remain day to day agencys. Too managers must underneathstand the involution of the manage and the qualifys it succeed motive. If managers are devoteconducive attributconducive attributconducive attributconducive in bond or treaty, then there succeed be no “eagerness” or buy-in and there may polite-balanced be locomotive opposition (Davenport, 2000).

Planning/fruit /budgeting are requisite coercion the terminatement of an devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance. Intentionning should be intimately signed with bindering opportunity during an applianceation. Ineffective intentionning fruits in require aggravateruns and fruit delays. Home Depot, Lockerheed Martin and Mead Corporation are examples of companies attributing terminatement to intentionning. As recurrent antecedent, abundant contrivances distinctly failed undivideds are aggravate budget, some as considerconducive as 189 percent.

Distant testing of the manage is a clew component coercion the terminatementful applianceation of the manage. It is reported that Gillette Corporation withstood five months of caustic testing procedures anteriorly their terminatementful go-live date (CIO, 2000). Too, Eastman Kodak was conducive to finished what at the interval was the amplest applianceation on chronicles as a fruit of testing (PR Innovatingswire, 2001). Whirlpool Corporation attributes indistant testing as its unique infer coercion unlucky and requirely applianceation. The corporation gambled on its testing program by piercing dfeel the total of interval deficiencyed in an endeavor to relinquish the exasperation of Considerconducive Executives.


The contrivance of this was to confirm the elder motives of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manages wants and strategies organisations can select to countenance the challenges and indicate the terminatement? Towards this contrivance unanalogous periods and journals were explore. The contrivance team compostion, administration living , inside alacrity of the employees, pauseence of technolgical infraerection conducive to living and binder the innovating manage to be applianceed, polite defined contrivances which is in length with the coercionm’s contrivance, adquately tested manage, distinct and polite defined reporting erection and amiconducive carryership are entire living ingredients to indicate the terminatementful applianceation as polite as utilization of a innovatingly deployed devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage. It is to be devoteconducive attributconducive attributableed that polite-balanced though a manage technically correct, underneathutilization as a fruit of closing of ample rejoinder or underneathstanding of how to inoculate the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage coercion day to day agency totals to want of the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage. Coercion this infer, the administration must inform the verificationrs of the deployed devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage on the deficiency coercion the qualify as polite as established benefits.

Finally, though appropraite appraises should be prostrate in assign to nullify want of the devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manage contrivance, they may quiescent betide; except when they betide, a manage want anatomy which is an exploration to indicate the underneathlying infers coercion the nonconformance to the manage exactment in manage to confirm the motives of nonconformance homogeneous recommobject appropraite emendation appraises. This is becaverification want could feel benefits expecially in ratio to letters.

Manage Count = 2,932


Mearian, L. (2000), “CEO: SAP installation motived problems”, ComputerWorld, Vol. 34 No. 48,

p. 20.

Nah, F.F., Lau, J.L. and Kuang, J. (2001), “Momentous ingredients coercion terminatementful applianceation of

enterprise manages”, Transaction Recurrentity Administration Journal, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 285-96.

Ben Meadowcrof, Why Manages Fail. https://www.homeworkessaymarket.com/write-my-paper/benmeadowcroft.com/reports/systemfailure/

Beynon-Davies P. (2009). The ‘language’ of informatics: the recurrentity of devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice manages. International Journal of Devoteconducive attributconducive attributableice Administration. 29(2). 92-103

CIO (2000), “Does ERP found a improve transaction?”, 15 February, pp. 114-24.

Davenport, T. (2000), Mission Momentous – Genuineizing the Promise of Invadeprise Manages, Harvard Transaction School Publishing, Boston, MA.

Geishecker, L. (1999), “ERP vs best of breed”, Strategic Administration, March, pp. 63-6.

Land, F. and Hirschheim, R. “Participative Manages Contrivance: Rationale, Tools and Techniques”, Journal of Applied Manages Anatomy, Vol. 10, 1983.

Lyytinen, K. and Hirschheim, R. “Notice Manages Wants – A Survey and Sect of the Empirical Literature”, Oxford Surveys in IT, Vol. 4, 1987, pp. 257-309.

May, L. (1998), “Elder motives of software contrivance want”, Crosstalk, July.

The Standish Assemblage. The CHAOS Report (1995), 1995. https://www.homeworkessaymarket.com/write-my-paper/standishgroup.com/chaos.html.

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