Final Exam Question

Final Exam
Question 1:
The understanding of social personhood increases the ability to work effectively with persons with disabilities. Social personhood describes the sense of people who determine who can enjoy protections and rights as well as the duties associated with personhood. The concept is a theoretical model of social justice that argues that social justice is significant and it should promote the capacity of social autonomy (Kabel, 2013). It encourages people to work well with the disabled persons with learning difficulties and disabilities. For example, organizations should form proper social programs and policies to help disabled persons.
The social programs such as creating awareness on the ability of the disabled persons would help in improving the performance of the disabled persons. According to Kabel(2013), the models of social justice explain the aspects of social personhood that is designed on the free relationships of equal citizens that ignore class, gender, and disability inequalities (Kabel, 2013). Rationality is usually stated as a show of moral personhood.
The concerns of social justice are related with morally concerning persons to counter the potential concerns of disabled persons. For example, the normal people have the moral authority to work well with the disabled persons in the society. Philosophical functions are critical in maintaining specific ideas on ability and disability which develops the qualifying criteria for social personhood. Living with persons with learning disabilities relies on the norms of dependency, competency, and intelligence.

Question 2:
The two of the power struggles, which Foucault names and relates to the social construction of disability. They include the concept of justice and universal morality. The two powers of power struggles are useful in the formulation of the social constructionism perspective (Fillingham, 2007). Universal morality pushes for people to become naturally morally rather than being influenced by social interactions and processes in the society. The concept of justice is a significant struggle in improving the concept of truth through the social constructionism model.

The universal principles of justice seek to ensure that all human reasoning is based on justice and focusing on what is just and good. It is because most times people ignores the rule of justice and undermines universal morality (Fillingham, 2007). Foucault’s had rejected the aspect of universal morality as a key power struggle. However, the influence of universal morality cannot be underestimated in influence the social constructionism processes.
The potential interpretation of power is useful in promoting the identification that involves struggles and calculations. Foucault names ‘power’ emphasizes the complex nature of the strategies in social constructionism principles. The complexity of social time and environment leads to the existence of social orders based on space and time. Social justice and universal morality powers are critical in determining the social form and content of other persons. The differentiation between Foucault’s powers is between strategy and strategic approaches that seek to understand the conceptualization of the political influence, which not legitimate monopoly.

Question 3:
Cece’s doctors, parents, and teachers establish an environment whereby she could take part in her school fully with her friends and family (Bell, 2014). The engagement of Cece’s stakeholders shows the importance of creating a trust culture. For example, the schools provide an environment for all students to be educated and learn new ideas. The creation of meaningful relationships is important in promoting trust and safety among the students, teachers, and the doctors. The critical element of having good engagement is trust. Trust creates an environment whereby all persons feel that they are allowed to express themselves fully.
In the process of building the environment, the teachers usually allow the students to communicate with friends and family in a trusting and open manner (Bell, 2014). Open culture and communication are important in improving accountability as well as the comparison of the various aspects. Cece’s emphasized on the natural social nature of people and needed to improve social communication and relationships in the society.

In the Bell (2014)’ text, Cece argued that communication was important in the learning center of Cece. Cece determined that while accepting new family into the school environment, it is important to share with people openly. The development of the childcare philosophy is a good approach to improving the learning process. It is because family and friends have direct impact and interests in the education students. The success in the schools helps in accomplishing good relationships.

Question 4:
The deinstitutionalization for people with developmental disabilities is important in promoting personal development in the society. Deinstitutionalization process describes the process of discharging patients from residential facilities (Lindemann, 2016). The main policies associated with deinstitutionalization process include the costs reduction in the health care programs, health care reforms emphasizing on social relationships, and the growth of quality community-based care programs.
It is clear that the policy on fiscal cutbacks relies on the deinstitutionalization of patients with developmental disabilities. The institutionalization of patients with developmental disabilities was costly due to the demand for high costs investment in the management of the institutional facilities (Lindemann, 2016). The deinstitutionalization of the patients with developmental disabilities was critical in reducing costs and sharing the expenditures with the family and friends through the community-based health care programs and processes.

Apart from fiscal balancing, the focus on growing social improvement and relations is important in improving social integration of persons with developmental abilities to the community. Persons with developmental disabilities have been ignored and excluded from the community for many years. The exclusion of these people from the society affects their social live and relationship with their friends and families (Lindemann, 2016). The policy on social relationships is important in promoting social integration and development. The demand of community-based health care settings is critical in improving positive health care delivery. The community health care programs are an important policy action useful in improving quality health care performance in the society. These policies are important in promoting the deinstitutionalization of the people with developmental abilities.

Question 5:
An ethnographer can combat their ethnocentrism in various ways. Ethnographer usually uses their cultural norms in making generalization on the cultures and traditions of other people. It often leads to people making incorrect assumptions about other persons in the society. One of the ways of dealing with ethnocentrism is the avoiding of assumptions (Caligiuri, Baytalskaya, & Lazarova, 2016). It is critical to forget all persons from diverse cultures have other values, customers, or traditions which should be respected. The avoidance of these assumptions will help in believing in realities.
The second approach is to learn about other values and cultures. Understanding the traditions and lifestyles from the diverse cultures is important. It opens ethnographers to new things critical in learning to appreciate cultural diversity and differences. In addition, avoiding judgments is useful (Sharma, 2015). While people are acting differently, the ethnographers should not assume that they are making major mistakes. Learning to recognize differences is important. The avoidance of these judgments is useful in improving people’s values and cultures.

The ethnographers also try to be respectable while addressing and communication with other people in the society. The maintaining of the golden rule is useful in understanding how to treat people well. The respect for other persons is useful in integrating personal development and appreciating diversity in the society. It is also recommendable to consider the different forms of entertainment (Sharma, 2015). Dramatic emotions from diverse cultural movies, music, and shows help in empathizing with the foreigners. The ability to celebrate diverse cultures through entertainment is useful in eliminating ethnocentrism in the society. These approaches are useful in helping the ethnographers to deal with the problem of ethnocentrism in the society.
Question 6:
Temple Grandin’s description of the understanding of the actions and behaviors of cattle compared well to her experience of living with Autism for many years. Grandin argued that autism helped him to understand how cattle see life. She had a different view of the world from other people (Grandin, 2016). She believed in the view of animals of the world, a location of fear without any emotion and remorse whereby thinking comes in the form of pictures than in words. The animals do not have languages to express their feelings, nut their memories are based on sensory rather than words.

While in her work, Grandin (2016) realized that cattle usually balked and refused to move overshadows. When an animal is trained to accept an activity, it does not easily translate to similar activities. The process of overcoming her troubles with autism developed this view that the world is a place full of fear and does not offer any consolation. Grandin was able to write numerous books on her observations of animals. Grandin’s view can be used to communicate with nonverbal children diagnosed with autism.

The analogy helped her in her work of designing humane slaughter process for animals. The designing of these good slaughter systems required her view from the struggles with autism. She was highly successful in her career because of having a unique view on the design of the slaughtering systems for animals (Grandin, 2016). In most states, they did not consider it important to come up with humane ways of slaughtering animals. However, Grandin inspired people and organizations in improving their treatment of animals in the society, which is important.

Bell, C. (2014). El Deafo. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams.
Caligiuri, P., Baytalskaya, N., & Lazarova, M. B. (2016). Cultural humility and low ethnocentrism as facilitators of expatriate performance. Journal of Global Mobility, 4(1), 4-17.
Fillingham, L. A. (2007). Foucault for beginners. London, UK: For beginners.
Grandin, T. (2016). Thinking in pictures, expanded edition: My life with autism. Vintage: Reissue edition.
Kabel, A. (2013). The Snog and Grog Club: Social personhood in hospice care. Qualitative Health Research, 23(2), 147-155.
Lindemann, H. (2016). Holding and letting go: the social practice of personal identities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sharma, P. (2015). Consumer ethnocentrism: Reconceptualization and cross-cultural validation. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(3), 381-389.