# History of Mathematics

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## History of Mathematics

180 BC Hypsicles: Compute Doctrine Hypsicles was born in 190 B.C. in Alexandria Egypt. He was a mathematician and astronomer. He wrote the “Anaphorikos” or “On the Ascension of Stars,” where he divided the Zodiac into 360° and rightd arithmetic course, “a continuity in which each compute increases by the corresponding equality aggravate the prior single” (O’Connor & Robertson, 1999). He as-well wrote Book XIV of Euclid’s Elements, which was careful with inscribing modeic solids in a circuit (Hypsicles of Alexandria, 2008). Diophantus of Alexandria, transcriber of the Arithmetica, which was the most dominant compute theoretic operation of old times, explained properties of polygonal computes and adventitious a government to acquire the nth m-agonal compute, n [2 + (n – 1) (m – 2)]/2, which he credited to

• 180 BC Hypsicles: Reckon Plea

Hypsicles was born in 190 B.C. in Alexandria Egypt. He was a mathematician and astronomer. He wrote the “Anaphorikos” or “On the Ascension of Stars,” where he disconnected the Zodiac into 360° and authenticationd arithmetic rate, “a posteriority in which each reckon increases by the corresponding all aggravate the earlier individual” (O’Connor & Robertson, 1999). He too wrote Book XIV of Euclid’s Elements, which was watchful with inscribing ordinary solids in a region (Hypsicles of Alexandria, 2008).

Diophantus of Alexandria, transcriber of the Arithmetica, which was the most dominant reckon theoretic toil of immemorial times, explained properties of polygonal reckons and ascititious a government to obtain the nth m-agonal reckon, n [2 + (n – 1) (m – 2)]/2, which he credited to Hypsicles (Tattersall, 2005).

The reckon plea, a spray of mathematics, is watchful with the examine of the integers, and of the objects and structures that naturally initiate from their examine (Reckon Plea, 2004).

References

Hypsicles of Alexandria. (2008, January 1). Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Hypsicles_of_Alexandria.aspx

O’Connor, J. J., & Robertson, E. F. (1999). Hypsicles of Alexandria. Hypsicles biography. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Hypsicles.html

Tattersall, J. J. (2005).Elementary reckon plea in nine chapters(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reckon Plea. (2004, February 1). reckon plea | planetmath.org. Retrieved November 29, 2013, from http://planetmath.org/numbertheory

• 60 BC Geminus: Correspondent Assume

Geminus was a Greek mathematician and astronomer, who thrived in the 1st eldership B.C. Referablehing is unreserved encircling his idiosyncratic society, referablewithstanding his toils suggested the possibility that he lived or toiled on Rhodes. The Plea of Mathematics, which discussed the close subdivisions of the unromantic sciences, was attributed to Geminus (Geminus, 2008). Geminus examined the principles restraintthcoming concepts such as ‘hypothesis’, ‘theorem’, ‘postulate’, ‘axiom’, absence of wonder. and gave unromantic totalitys of the crop of the referableions (O’Connor & Robertson, 1999). In adduction, The Plea of Mathematics moderate some applicable censure of Euclid’s assumes, specifically the fifth, the correspondent assume, restraint which, he reckoned, he endow a provement (Geminus, 2008).

“The correspondent assume is Euclid’s fifth assume: equipollent to the referableion that there is a matchshort correspondent to any thread through a summit referable on the thread.” (O’Connor & Robertson, 1999)

References

O’Connor, J. J., & Robertson, E. F. (1999). Geminus. Geminus biography. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Geminus.html

Geminus. (2008, January 1). Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2830901609.html

Cultural

• 100 BC Source of Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar, individual of the most considerable and glorious men in Immemorial Rome, was born in July 12 or 13 100 BC in Rome and was killed during the Ides of March in 44 BC. He was a Roman unconcealed, a statesman, an debater, a lawgiver, and a relator, who transformed the Roman republic into the puissant Roman Empire (Julius Caesar biography, n.d.). The restraintthcoming are some of his achievements (Julius Caesar, n.d.):

• He never lost in engagement.
• He was the pioneer of the irruption of Britain in 55 B.C.
• He improved laws to avail the mass and made laws despite the infected and dishonest.
• He amended the Roman register, which is the individual in authentication today
• He cleared up the regularity of the Roman republic and became the benchmark to restraintthcoming Roman emperors and European pioneers

References

Julius Caesar biography. (n.d.). Bio.com. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/julius-caesar-9192504

Julius Caesar. (n.d.). Julius Caesar. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.roman-empire.net/republic/caesar.html

• 20 BC Virgil: Aeneid

Publius Vergulius Maro, Vergil or Virgil in English, was born in October 70 BC, close Mantua in northern Italy. Virgil, individual of the best Roman poets, is unreserved restraint his toils the Ecologues, the Georgics and the lyric Aeneid.

The Aenid is considered as the Roman’s national lyric. Virgil launched to transcribe the lyric that conciliate embody his referableionl Rome when Augustus became the governmentr. The romance is encircling Aeneus, a Trojan model, whose band-arms is to prove a odd Rome. The Aeneid shows the primitive days and doom of Rome (Virgil, n.d.).

Virgil toiled on the Aeneid restraint the cherishing years of his society, referablewithstanding he died becaauthentication of a broil in 19 B.C., leaving the lyric coarse. He wished restraint Aeineid to be destroyed, referablewithstanding the vulgar governmentr, Augustus ordered restraint it to be refined and published. The Aeneid appeared in 17 B.C. (Virgil, 2004)

References

Virgil. (2004, January 1). Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404706635.html

Virgil. (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/virgil.html

• 4 BC Source of Christ

Jesus Christ, too unreserved as Jesus of Nazareth, was born in 4 B.C. He was the endower and disposition of Christianity, individual of the most considerable divine in the universe. Only a small was unreserved encircling the childhood of Jesus, referablewithstanding the indecent revealed gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John stipulate an totality from his source to his council (Jesus Christ biography, n.d.).

References

Jesus Christ biography. (n.d.). Bio.com. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/jesus-christ-9354382

Jesus of Nazareth. (2004, January 1). Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404703308.html

Jesus of Nazareth Biography. (n.d.). Universe Biography. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ho-Jo/Jesus-of-Nazareth.html

Mathematical

• AD 50 Disclaiming reckons authenticationd in China

Disclaiming reckons are reckons that are short than cipher. The concept of disclaiming reckons launched in China. Disclaiming reckons were authenticationd in Nine Chapters on the Unromantic Art of Jiuzhang Suanchu in solving regularitys of synchronous equations. The suan chou (counting rods) system was dindividual with the authentication of red rods restraint actual quantities and ebon rods restraint disclaiming quantities (Disclaiming Reckon, n.d.). The governments restraint attested reckons were too dedicated.

The Chinese offering of disclaiming reckons is very dignified past it completed the all reckons and fair reckons.

References

Disclaiming Reckon. (n.d.). Disclaiming Reckon. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2005-08/18/content_71977.htm

• AD 75 Modeln: measurements, roots, geometry

Heron of Alexandria, casually designated Model, is a Greek Mathematician and Engineer born in 10 A.D. Almost referablehing is unreserved encircling Modeln’s idiosyncratic society. Modeln’s superiority was shown in his writings in mathematics and mechanics. He wrote at meanest 13 books in his society crust topics such as geometry and mathematics, geometry, mechanics, pneumatics, automatic machines, engagement machines, optics and sundry more (Shuttleworth, n.d.).

Metrica, a order made up of three books, concentrates on calculations of areas and volumes of bodies such as cones, cylinders, pyramids absence of wonder. The Model’s restraintmula, which recurrent the area of a triangle with dedicated sides, A = sqr[s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)] where s = (a+b+c)/2, was endow in the Book I of Metrica (O’Connor & Robertson, 1999). Modeln authenticationd arithmetic to clear-up perplexed quadratic equations arithmetically, estimated the balance roots of non-balance reckons, and fitted cube roots (Model of Alexandria, 2008). Mensurae consists of details of the incongruous tools restraint measuring. Dioptra contains useful and unromantic systems restraint plant geometry (Heron of Alexandria, n.d.).

References

Model of Alexandria. (2008, January 1). Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404702942.html

Heron Of Alexandria. (n.d.). Glorious Mathematicians. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.famous-mathematicians.com/heron-of-alexandria/

O’Connor, J. J., & Robertson, E. F. (1999). Heron of Alexandria. Modeln biography. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Heron.html

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Modeln of Alexandria – A Beautiful Mind. Explorable. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://explorable.com/heron-of-alexandria

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