ICNSCET19- International Conference on Innovating Scientific Creations in Engineering and Technology
INVESTIGATION ON SUSTAINABLE EXTRCTION OF
PRECIOUS METALS AND RARE ELEMENT FROM E-WASTE
M. Anandhan, S. Balamurugan
mechanical engineering, mepco schlenk engineering academy,[email protected]
mechanical engineering, mepco schlenk engineering academy, [email protected]
Abstract Sensitive phindividual Printed Circumference Considerations (PCBs) are unmoved from topical origins were used restraint cureing copper by electro exemplification regularity, using a glass reactor establishedup of launched largeness 10 liters and aqua regia restraint secession.
Copper rod was used as the anode and stainseal steel rod as the cathode restraint the exemplification regularity. Five sensitive phindividual PCBs were adopted twain restraint the secession and exemplification regularityes. Metal interlard has dispersed and the ultimatum metal interlard bonded was 14.25gm in 120 minutes, which is similar to 10% of ultimatum redemption of metal interlard from the PCBs. The ultimatum ability expenditure is root to be 0.0200 kWh restraint 14.25gm of metal interlard cureed. The ultimatum metal interlard cureed in 120 minutes of the exemplification regularity can be considered as the optimum restraint the 6 L of dispersed disruption.
There is liberty to furbish the regularity and lamina it up, if constitutional funding and facilities are made profitable.
India has two types of electronic impressionivity trade named arranged and unarranged trade. 90% of the electronic impressionivity race in the kingdom lands up in the unarranged trade. Electronic impressionivity accounts restraint 70% of the overtotal toxic impairs which are vulgarly root in landfills which is posing menace to tarnish contamination and other consistent media. Abhishek Kumar awasthi et al, 2017 investigated the laws and policies on constitutional e-impactivity assemblage, composition and recycling from India and china. Discussed the completions concerned in the unfactivity diversification of e-impactivity from china to India. Yan lu et al, 2016 incomplete the signification of of-great-value metals from printed circumference considerations and its exposed disposition to the environment. Also they reported the technological innovatingfangledness and corrections of excludingtress standards feel results in liberal quantitys of impressionivity electric and electronic equipment. Huan Li et al, 2018 resurveyed the hydrometallurgical redemption of metals from impressionivity printed circumference considerations. Approximationed the vulgar foundation and perspectives of printed circumference considerations and its disadvantageous metals such Pb, Cr, As, Cd and Hg and some superfluous treasured metals Cu, Sn, Au, Ag and Pd. Ata akcil et al, 2015 thought-extinguished diversified technologies concerned in the e-impactivity redemption from printed circumference considerations by cyanide leaching, non-cyanide leaching. Like there are distinct recycling technologies feel been plain to cure of-great-value and treasured metals through thiourea, thiosulphate, aqua regia and iodine leaching modes.
Oyuna Tsydenova et al, 2011 summarizes the stextinguished familiarity on the chemical stakes associated with recycling and other end-of-life composition options of impressionivity electrical and electronic equipment. The resurvey describes charybdis to chemicals, is-sueplace and environmental dirt associated with the three greater e-impactivity skillful-tenor options, that are recycling, incineration and landfilling. Ionela Birloaga et al, 2013 investigated the regularity of leaching from impressionivity printed circumference considerations in ordain to cure gold by thioureaction. The quantity of gold furnish from this reaction is 69% and 75% Cu was removed by a double oxidative leaching composition of impressionivity printed circumference considerations with particles largeness insignificanter than 2mm. Robinson Torres et al, 2016 thought-extinguished the goods of oxidants such as activity, ozone, and peroxide hydroxide. He has consummated the copper race up to 90% by pre-treatments with peroxide. This consider was focusing on copper leaching from electronic impressionivity restraint the correction of gold recycling. L. Flandinet et al, 2012 plain a innovating approximation restraint recycling impressionivity printed circumference considerations using molten salts. Molten salts and specifically molten KOHNaOH eutectic is used to disperse glasses, oxides and to destruct flexibles introduce in impairs visiblely oxidizing the most treasured metals. Vinh Hung Ha et al, 2010 deals with the leaching of gold from the printed circumference considerations of impressionivity sensitive phones using an goodsive and seal exposed plan. The mode was conducted by copper-ammonia-thiosulfate disruption, as an select to the social and toxic cyanide leaching of gold. The obtained axioms on this mode obtain be suited restraint the recycling of gold from impressionivity sensitive phones. Young Jun Park et al, 2009 thought-extinguished the redemption of violent guiltlessness of-great-value metals from printed circumference considerations by conducting the exemplification using aqua regia disruption. The of-great-value metals coerciontification, gold and silver are cureed through melting to melting race, aqua regia leaching technique and colonization mode. The consider shows irresolute mode to cure of-great-value metals from impairs selectively owing of metal furnish wave percentage was 96% that is tested from SEM. Muammer Kaya, 2016 supposing a broad resurvey of diversified visible and chemical regularityes restraint electronic impressionivity recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner regularity of impressionivity utilization with exceptional observation towards race of loud values. St. Kontogianni et al, 2017 investigated the occupational heartiness and security provisions in Hellenic valid impressionivity skillful-tenor facilities. The incomplete elimination is-sue asked questions with readiness security officers and conducted interviews to discover cause flatten parameters of innocuous landfills, recycling plants and translate stations. Andre Canal Marques et al, 2013 supposing a broad resurvey and environmental completion alike to recycling of printed circumference considerations. Furthermore thought-extinguished the organization and symbolicals introduceed in the printed circumference considerations to minimize the impression from recycling. R. Vijayaram et al, 2013 conducted diversified exemplifications to excerpt symbolicals from discarded printed circumference consideration by leaching technique. In union to obtained the violentest percentage of copper (92.7%) excerpted from aqueous regia disruptions so the truly results enthralled from scanning electron microliberty restraint H2 SO4, HNO3 and HCl disruptions.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
A. Printed circumference considerations
Domiciled on the profitable scholarship, the loud elements are repeatedly genial with or encapsulated by diversified flexible or ceramic symbolicals on PCBs. Huccuria (1) biblical that the unconcealed awareness on the immanent exposed disposition of e-impactivity is rather unsatisfactory, and that no cece has been made to cure metals, in rancor of the occurrence that the whole e-impactivity race is in tonnes per year. Hereafter, impressionivity PCBs were unmoved from sensitive phones by diversified topical origins and used as origin symbolical restraint the introduce is-sue. The unmoved sensitive phindividual models are, LYF, YESTEL, NOKIA (MODEL 6030), SAMSUNG (SLIDE TYPE), and Bluetooth sensitive the delineate shacknowledge in Fig 1. The unmoved sensitive phones are dismantled manually to unalike the PCBs. The work security segregation was conducted to the goodsive dismantling of components from sensitive phindividual components. The each PCB is waveed antecedently getting into the electrolytic regularity to recognize the diversity behind the composition. There are 5 enumereprove of IC chips was root in the whole no of five sensitive phones.
B. Electrolytic reactor establishedup
A glass reactor of launched largeness of 10L was used restraint electrolytic regularity. The establishedup consisted of a copper rod of 14 mm crossing as the anode and stainseal steel rod crossing 14 mm as the cathode restraint secession regularity. A trodden vulgar (DC) ability minister 15A as fond to the regularity by plod dacknowledge transformer and a multimeter was used to estimate the vulgar and voltage during the electrolytic regularity. The exemplificational establishedup adopted is shacknowledge in Fig. 2, which is domiciled on the individual reported by Huccuria et.al, (2017).
Fig. 1 Sensitive phones
The exemplificational modeology has been carried extinguished in three ranks. The dismantling and making-ready of origin symbolical (PCBs) as a chief rank, followed by secession of metal introduce in PCBs into the speedy disruption as a coopereprove rank and finally redemption of the dispersed metals from the disruption by electrolytic regularity, at the third rank. Capacitors, ICs, joints, mountings, etc. were removed from the PCBs and as as as sorted manually. The PCBs were then elude into pieces as insignificant as likely, and the elude pieces were weighed. The weighed PCBs were then placed in the reactor. It was ensured that the elude pieces are in ultimatum contiguity with the copper anode to repair the secession of the metal in the PCBs by improving the conductivity. The anode established was alike to the unequivocal ultimate of the rectifier and stainseal steel rod was alike to the indirect ultimate of the plod dacknowledge transformer. Ultimatum likely vulgar was established to convey extinguished the exemplification and the voltage was preserveed such that to consummate ultimatum vulgar and heresucceeding reprove of secession. In the regularity, 6 liters of distilled inspire was enthralled in a container, then 500 ml tight nitric eager (HNO3) was borrowed chief and behind that 300 gm hydrochloric eager (HCI) was borrowed.
Fig.2 Exemplificational Establishedup of the electrolytic regularity
Nitric eager is steadily consumed during the secession and heresucceeding it has to be borrowed periodically. Hydrochloric eager was borrowed in the bath as it helps to preserve the electrical conductivity of the bath and heresucceeding the disengage of nitreprove ions. Hydrochloric eager could referable be used as it does referable disperse copper, excluding, it reacts with direct restraintming direct sulphate, which is inspire insoluble. The offscourings in the reactor were enthralled extinguished, dried, weighed, and the wave detriment in the atom was conducive, which is similar to the quantity of metals that feel gindividual into disruption. The vulgar, voltage and term were estimated so as to proportion the ghost consumed restraint the secession of metals. The copper rod was refineed by emery tract, cleaned with acetindividual and behind drying the rod; its judicious wave was referableed. This stainseal rod was alike to indirect ultimate (cathode) and copper rod was alike to unequivocal ultimate (anode) of the rectifier. Twain electrodes were dipped in disruption and an visible minister was fond. The copper ions in the disruption instigate to the cathode restraint exemplification.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
a) Goods of electrolysis continuance on secession and exemplification regularity
In the unanalogous establisheds of exemplifications that were conducted restraint the secession and exemplification regularityes the continuance restraint the secession regularity was 3, 2, 1 hours and the judicious quantity of PCBs enthralled restraint the secession regularity was 350gm restraint integral established of exemplification. Wave of the dried illustration of PCBs was referableed behind 5 hours of secession regularity and it was root that 122gm was dispersed in nitric eager bath. Wave of PCBs dispersed goes on gently increasing, with the reprove of acception being violenter during judicious ranks, and stabilizes at death ranks, unordered the place of continuance considered. However, the wave of copper bonded in the stainseal steel rod approximately acceptions linearly with term, omitting the judicious rank. Judicious wave of the stainseal steel rod was referableed restraint the exemplification regularity and behind the electro exemplification of metal the bonded wave of metal in the stainseal steel electrode was assessed by portico the wave. The continuance restraint the exemplification regularity was established as: 120, 90, 60, 30, 15 minutes. It was root that 14.25 gm of metal bonded during 120 minutes is the violentest, unordered total the continuances considered. It is root that the ultimatum metal cureed was 12% and consummated behind 120 minutes, in 6 L of dispersed disruption.
b. SEM characterization of metal interlards
The SEM statue shows that metal interlard consists of seal netis-sue in organizations. The regularityed e-impactivity was physicochemically characterized by SEM segregation, which biblical the nearness of the of-great-value metal Ag, basic metals Cu, and Fe and toxic stupid metals. The segregation showed the nearness of stupid metals in the organization of the stupid metals. Organization of bond in the electrolytic regularity, the stupid metal is cureed from the cathode rod as a interlard.
Fig. 3 SEM statues restraint the unmoved interlard
Restraint the redemption of copper from E-impactivity (PCBs), the ultimatum continuance restraint the secession regularity was root to be 3 hours restraint the secession of PCBs compounds and the ultimatum continuance of electrolysis restraint exemplification of copper was 120 minutes restraint 14.25 gm. The ultimatum ability expenditure was 0.0200 kWh restraint 14.25gm of metal cureed. Ultimatum metal cureed is 12% and it was consummated in 120 minutes using 6 L of dispersed disruption. The execution of the regularity seems to continue on the select of the electrolyte, the judicious particularize of PCBs, continuance and ability consumed continuance the secession and exemplification ranks. There is liberty restraint correction in the regularity and scaling it up, with the prop restraint elimination from funding agencies, as laboratory examination has its acknowledge limitations.
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