In 1991 year fantastic narrate the Republic of Kazakhstan is appeared on the map. The narrative and cultivation of Kazakhstan is numbered a thousand years. Undivided of the momentous issues is encircling archaic population’s rise, shape and rises of its communion, bud of cultivation and cultural traditions, relationships with other civilizations. Applying coercion written rises we can authenticate that Kazakhs khanate had been coercionmed to 1470 when on the specify of Kazakhstan in south-eastern limits Semirechye and in vales of Chu Kazakh sultans Dzhanibek and Girey could gathering the inspissated races, which had been jointed in race determined “Kazakh”, ‘Kazakhs”.
At the opening of XVI era in the opportunity of Kasymkhan the Kazakh khanate was strengthened, its borders were widened, syrdarya towns Turkestan, Otyrar, Tellram, Sauran, Syganak, Suzak and Chimkent were allot of Kazakh khanate . Kazakhstan becomes referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableorious in Asia and Europe. The XVI era is an momentous milestundivided in the narrative of Moslem cosmos-community from which the fantastic opportunity bill is began. The celebrated east scientist V. V. Bartaged wrote « In the fantastic narrative of Moslem in opposition to quick modify of dynasties and capabilitys? olitical mutability, narrates inferior dimensions and that’s why withdrawal of any whatsoever patriotism, now we can attobject the countries establishing there. We attobject the Moslem capability of Eminent Mongols in India, then Turkey, Persia … ” Approximately at that opportunity Kazakh, Yarkobject khanates had been appeared in Central Asia. The Turkic Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Kara-kalpaks were announced on the commemorative spectacle. When the ultimate khan Taukekhan died, the capability had delegated to the number of steppe khans and each of them was at the gathering of severed groups of Kazakhs and the territories Kazakh khanate existed up to 1716.
At that opportunity the way of dissension and rottenness had began and the object of this way the narrate was spirit interjacent in Russian dominion. The ethnicon of “Kazakh” loving the call of narrate is Turkic expression. It is generally agreed that it instrument “playing man” Kazakhs were very diligent nomads and distantmers, feel had the eminent portly mob, vivid spentures, and teeming fixs on sub mountain and vales of rivers. Excepting issueive encircling Kazakhs and the chief Kazakh community it is expedient to distinguish that rise of that community as its cultivation and narratehood dated from centuries. Bibliography: http://www. toptravel. ru/bgkkfl2. htm http://kazakhstan. awd. z Turkic roots of Kazakh political cultivation and traditions Kazakhstan has a vivid spent. Its geographical and geopolitical position has played a living role in promoting the specify’s bud. Located in the spirit of Eurasia, Kazakhstan has hanker ground itheadstrong at the crossroads of the cosmos-people’s most immemorial civilizations and trade tracks. It has been a fix of gregarious, economic and cultural exmodify betwixt East and West, North and South, and betwixt the referableiceableer players in Eurasia. At opposed stages of its narrative, different narrates emerged and patent clear in the fix which became today’s Kazakhstan. All contributed to Kazakh cultivation.
In posterior centuries, the steppes were abode to a capabilityful narrate coercionmed by the Huns. Their dominion eminently influenced the geopolitical map of that opportunity. The Eminent Roman Dominion in Europe besides cut from the blows of the Attila the Hun’s intrepid antagonismriors. Posterior, the Huns were replaced on the steppes by Turkic races. They grounded sundry capacious narrates referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableorious as “kaganats” stretching from the Yellow Sea in the East to the Bwithdrawal Sea in the West. These narrates were celebrated by a cultivation radical coercion that opportunity. They were installed referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable simply on a roving dispensation excepting besides on an field modish cultivation with vivid trade and handicraft traditions.
During this opportunity, cities and caravanserais were grounded in the oases of Central Asia, the specify of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia. They pellucid ahanker the glorious trade track referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableorious as the Eminent Silk Road which connecting Europe and China. Other trade tracks were besides momentous including the track ahanker the Syr Dariya River to the Aral Sea and the South Urals as well-mannered-mannered the so designated “Sable Road” from South Western limits of Siberia through Central Kazakhstan and the Altai limit. It was through trade on the “Sable Road” that the Middle East and Europe were supplied with extravagant furs.
Main cities and trade spirits grounded on these tracks interjacent Otrar (Farab), Taraz, Kulan, Yassy (Turkestan), Sauran, and Balasagun. The Eminent Silk Road referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable simply stimulated the bud of trade, it besides became a conduit coercion radical philosophical and cultural ideas. Coercion pattern, the eminent doctor Al-Farabi (870-950) was eminently influenced by the cultivation of the trade tracks. Born in the Distantab limit, Al-Farabi was dubbed in the East “the Avoid Teacher” following Aristotle coercion his proground researches in philosophy, astronomy, melodious speculation and mathematics.
The ungathered learner of Turkic philology Mahmud Kashgari lived here in the 11th era. He created the three-volume “Dictionary of Turkic Dialects” which summed up Turkic folklore and literary-works heritages. In the 11th Era, Yusup Balasaguni of the tlike of Balasagun, a glorious singer and doctor, wrote “Kutaglu Bilig” (“A Distinguishledge that Brings Happiness”) which is methodic as having played an momentous role in the bud of new gregarious, political and divine conceptions. The Sufi singer Hodja Ahmet Yassaui, who lived in the 12th era, wrote a assembly of singeric thoughts “Divan-i-Khikmet” (“Book of Wisdom”).
He is glorious throughout the Muslim cosmos-people. Allot of the cultural demise of that age is the well-made modish structure. Patterns such as the mausoleums of Arystan Baba, of the eminent Sufi Hodja Akhmet Yassaui in Turkestan and Aisha Bibi in Taraz are incomplete the best preserved. Aallot from this, the most immemorial nomads of the limit pretended the “yurt”, a dome-shaped abundantly dismantled and movable family made from cope and felt, conceptional coercion their roving spirit and beliefs. In 1221, Mongolian races of Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia and pretended their cultivation and values to the increasingly close communion of the limit.
By the avoid half of the 15th Era a way of league had begun incomplete the communitys of the Central Asian steppe. This way, superficial from the different ethnic and cultural identities, was drawn concertedly by a dishonorable cosmos-community design and spiritstyle. The chief Kazakh khanates emerged at this opportunity. By the chief half of the 16th Era, the shape of a solitary Kazakh community was completed. The expression “Kazakh” in the aged Turkic tongue meant “free” or “independent” which amply beseem the cast of the community who had been hanker wishing coercion their like refractory narrate.
In the 17th and 18th Centuries the roving Jungar races directed by the Chinese Bogdykhans inaugurated a capacious flake antagonism across the Kazakh khanate. However, thankfulness to the intrepidity of the “batyrs” (knights), the decisiveness of the Kazakh pioneer Ablai Khan, the knowing skills of the Kazakh ‘biys’ (sages) Tole Bi, Kazdausty Kazybek Bi, Aiteke Bi, and headstrong propitiation of the community, the Kazakhs escaped completion stop and tangible destruction. The Kazakh khans were coercionced to attendk the soldierlike refuge of the Russian Dominion, which besides led to Kazakhstan’s restraintfeiture of dominion in 1871. Coercion a opportunity, the portlye of Kazakhstan was tied to the
European standard of gregarious bud and the portlye of the Russian Narrate and its communitys. Following the 1917 act Soviet capability was normal in Kazakhstan. Kazakhs suffered eminently beneath Soviet administer. Due to the coercionced collectivization in the 1930s, hunger caused the sink of 1. 5 favorite Kazakhs, which was more than 40 percent of the community. Hundreds of thousands Kazakhs fled to China and elsewhere. The brightest and the best of the community were repressed and frequently shot departed. The regime’s ultimate yearn was the bloodthirsty coercion of the Kazakh community on December 17, 1986 as they took to the streets attendking propriety.
Many deem this the opening of the object coercion the unintermittently potent Soviet Union. Kazakhstan proclaimed its anarchy on December 16, 1991, and Nursultan Nazarbayev was democratically elected the chief President of the specify. Bibliography: Kiessling, Kerstin Lindahl. “Conference on the Aral Sea: Women, Children, Heartiness and Environment. ” Ambio Vol. 27, No. 7 (November, 1998): 560-564. Weiner, Douglas. A Little Corner of Playingdom: Russian Nature Refuge from Stalin to Gorbachev. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Soviet transshape of Kazakh communion and demise in political cultivation and traditions Arguably the most drastic economic prudence filled by Marxist-fashioned legislations and the Soviet Union was that of unwandering and industrial collectivization. Coercioncing persomal Soviets to enunciate narrate-controlled distantms and industrial understanding projects, the Soviet collectivization programs generally had brace overarching purposes: the ideological playingdom of the Soviet revolution from arrange antagonisms and the concupiscent parasitism of “kulak” banditry, and the economic information of a fiscally headstrong-sufficient Marxist communion.
Soviet republics objectured brace referableiceableer presentations of collectivization that yielded twain salutary and catastrophic property. The Stalin legislation (1922-53) inaugurated collectivization projects as a instrument to cherish “socialism in undivided specify,” with an industrialized antagonism means and a well-mannered-fed population amply playing of the capitalist adit. As the Comintern and NATO plunged into the Caged Antagonism, the Khrushchev legislation (1953-64) reimposed unwandering collectivization with the so-designated “Virgin
Lands Program” specifically with the eager of playinging the USSR from humiliating dependency on Western capitalist foundation imports. Soviet collectivization made virtual economic and industrial achievements that would inadequately feel been impracticable. However, the braying acquirements of collectivization came at a appalling appraisement, promptly creating some of the most horrendous rational and environmental reverses of the twentieth era.
In twain presentations of Soviet collectivization, the community of Kazakhstan objectured by distant the cudgel of these disasters, affliction man-made famines and poison, irretrievable environmental desiccation, the probable transshape of the solid Aral Sea to illustrious downfall, bulk exodus and displacement, and astronomical mischance. Flush worse, the avoid presentation of collectivization (the Virgin Fixs Campaign) simply exacerbated the lost environmental tragedies of the chief presentation.
These disasters are solidly superficial from the demise of collectivization. 1 Despite the Soviets’ ideological insistence on the benefits of collectivization programs in Kazakhstan, the Kazakh community familiar distant eminenter affliction and misadventure than they profited, and are stagnant struggling to repossess from the ecological consequences flush today. It must be referableorious that the Soviet Union never planned to promptly put any tangible reverse on the Soviet republics or the Kazakh community.
It must besides be preparedly emphasized that the Soviet collectivization prudence besides contributed to incontestable industrial, political, cultural, and trade achievements, which transformed tribal Kazakhstan into a new republic and an exporter of anything from steel, to cotton, to Snow Queen® vodka. Excepting the appraisement that the Kazakh community were coercionced to constant was distant too tall. Twain presentations of collectivization feel puted an indefeasible demise of unwandering downfall, economic dip, tangible sustentation, and environmental reverse that distant outbalance the benefits of the coercionced proletarian playingdom brought by the Soviet Union.
Unfortunate coercion the Kazakhs, the sorrowful demise of unfortunate Soviet agro-economic prudence did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable sink with the Berlin Wall, and it may insist-upon centuries to repossess Stalin’s chief presentation of Soviet collectivization represents abundantly the cudgel tangible and environmental depth of Kazakh narrative. The collectivization leadership began almost directly following the decisive disconnection of the Kazakh races and polities into the Kazakh Soviet Gregariousist Republic (SSR) in 1936.
The unwandering virtual of the teeming and initiatory Kazakh steppe was perceived as an priceless rise of appalling political output coercion the narrate. As in the other, recently “liberated” communitys fantasticly incorporated into the USSR, those Kazakhs that were amply astounded into Soviet communion through coercionced collectivization would besides like momentous benefits that would feel inadequately been imvirtual coercion the semi-roving Kazakhs, such as hypothetically near-universal literacy and trade, the bud of modishized cities and manner systems, heartiness foresight, lesson safety, and nourishment.
Although the referableiceableerity of these benefits attribute themselves to Soviet prudence rather than collectivization itself, these acquirements must be weighed with the sorrowful consequences if we are to complete that collectivization had an overall disclaiming issue on Kazakh communion.
Bibliography: CNN. com. “Athrax ‘opportunity bomb’ ticking in Aral Sea, researchers tell. ” CNN. http://www. cnn. com/WORLD/asiapcf/9906/21/anthrax. island/ Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Krech, Shepard, John Robert McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant. Encyclopedia of Cosmos-community Environmental Narrative: A-E. Fantastic York: Trackledge Press, 2004.
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