EFFECTIVE TEACHING METHODS AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL Dr. Shahida Sajjad Purposeant Professor Section of Peculiar Troddenion University of Karachi. Pakistan ABSTRACT The mind of this examine was to biasedize the capability of undeveloped command habits explanationd manage command scholars at disequalize flatten. Couple hundred and twenty underdisequalize scholars examineing in 11 sections of Benefenjoyment of Arts, University of Karachi, were interviewed environing their apprehensions of best and efficacious command habits and the deliberebuke manage that. Most of the scholars rebuked exhortation habit as the best command habit.
Reasons conceived; schoolmistress bring-about-readys perfect conception connected to theme-matter, space wary, scholars attentively atattmind exhortation and follow referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees neglect of wonder. The bunch argument was rebuked as the relieve best habit of command accordingly of; aggravate clear-trade of scholars, the erudition is aggravate efficacious, the scholars don’t feel to believe on rote erudition, and this habit educes creativity inthorough scholars neglect of wonder. Scholars’ apprehension and ratings environing the sensational and efficacious command habits is a habit to hint amendments in command/ erudition system.
Introduction: Command and erudition are the couple sides of a fabricate. The most original test manage measuring cheerful command is the total of scholar erudition that occurs. There are suitably proud correlations betwixt scholars’ ratings of the “total versed” in the habit and their aggravateperfect ratings of the schoolmistress and the habit. Those who versed aggravate gave their schoolmistresss prouder ratings (Cohen, 1981; Theperfect and Franklin, 2001). This corresponding test was to-boot thoroughay manageth by Thomas Angelo, when he said; “command in the neglect of erudition is faireous confabulationing. Doyle. T. (n. d. ). A schoolmistress’s capability is frequently environing scholar erudition. The attaining on command is crammed free of well-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved elaborationed habits that schoolmistresss can offer succeeding and skills that succeed ammind the opportunities manage scholars to attain. It is correspondently occupied with hintions of what referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard to do in the collocateroom. However, there is no government capacity on which command habits correspondent up best to which skills and/or succeeding that is 1 2 regularity taught. Scholars repeatedly feel dirty expertise in distinguishing if the ethod chosen by an biased educator was the best command habit or faireous “a habit” or badepmind the habit with which the schoolmistress was most pleasant. Doyle. T. (n. d). “Elaboration indicates that scholars are the most competent sources to noise on the space to which the erudition instruction was fertile, informative, satisfying, or worthwhile. While convictions on these themes are referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard plain measures of educator or habit capability, they are licit indicators of scholar indemnification, and there is true elaboration stringing scholar indemnification to efficacious command (Theperfect and Franklin, 2001). A meta-resolution of 41 elaboration studies bring-about-readys the strongest proof manage the nerve of scholar ratings gexceptional these studies investigated the harmony betwixt scholar ratings and scholar erudition. Doyle. T. (n. d. ) quoted Ory “The explanation of scholars’ ratings manage evaluating schoolmistress capability is the exceptional most elaborationed children in perfect of prouder troddenion. Aggravate 2000 creed and capacitys feel been written on this theme-theme aggravate the spent 70 years”.
Elaboration on scholar evaluation of command unconcealedly concludes that scholar ratings atattmind to be referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard spurious, powerful, proportionately unjaundiced and explanationful (Murray, 1994). Most universities comprise a system by which scholars bring-about-ready authorless satisfypurpose at the mind of each habit they thorough. These ratings of educator capability, these ratings feel been a burning theme-theme gexceptional they were carrying occupied in mid 1920’s (Chang, 2001) and they produce an colossal summon manage approximately integral science that explanations them (Hoyt & Pallett, 1999).
Aggravate the years scholar evaluation of educators has transitional significantly in-apex in the areas of the mind and habitology. They feel transformed from regularity chiefly explanationd to purpose scholars in the gathering of habits, to subsidiary benefenjoyment constituents prefer educe and ammind their command skills, to purposeing administrators with honor to personnel resolutions (Ory, 2000). Today, scholar ratings of command are distantly explanationd manage the mind of making personnel resolutions and benefenjoyment educement approveations (Scriven, 1995).
Manage administrators, the instruction extraneous from ratings aids them in making twain summative and managemative judgments intermanner with benefenjoyment privilege, profession, and preferment, hiring, excellenting benefenjoyment manage command awards and ceage, and in assigning schoolmistresss to habits (Franklin, 2001; Kulik, 2001). Braskamp (2000) hints that educators explanation the axioms managematively to educe and ammind their command capability. Scholar-ratings are in 2 3 educeedty explanationd in aggravate 90 percent of perfect colleges and universities in the United States and reoffer the most frequently explanationd policy manage evaluating educators and habits (Cuseo, n. . ). There is abundantly deliberebuke amid the prouder troddenion fraternity on how command or command capability may be defined (Braskamp, and Ory; 1994). Manage illustration, Centra (1993), defines efficacious command as “that which produces soundsome and mindful scholar erudition through the explanation of alienate procedures” (p. 42), Braskamp and Ory, (1994, p. 40) conceive twain command and erudition in their conditionation, defining efficacious command as the “creation of aspects in which alienate erudition occurs; shaping those aspects is what auspicious schoolmistresss feel versed to do efficaciously”.
Multifarious elaborationers feel focused on whether or referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard scholars are licit referees of command capability. Though caveats excel, the unconcealed conviction is that scholars are twain sane and referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard spurious sources of proof (Arreola, 1995; Braskamp & Ory, 1994; Pratt, 1997), While in collocate, scholars are laagered to perfect sorts of commandal instructions (lectures, commandal esthetics and aids, discoverings, exams). They are in commodities tentative consumers—able to distinguish property, concatenation, explanationfulness, and educator interenjoyment with scholars (Montgomery, n. . ). As consumers, Cuseo (n. d. ) privileges that scholars can referee what is taught and how it is taught, stationary Braskamp & Ory (1994) privilege that scholars can medepmind bring-about-ready instruction with honor to command. However, Ory (2001, p. 12) sums it up best stating: “unless they feeln’t been to collocate, as consumers they feel a licit signification”. Theall, M. (n. d. ) mentioned that the scholars can response doubts environing the property of exhortations, the appraise of discoverings and ordinances, the clarity of the educator’s explanations.
Students are sudepmind competent to biased their indemnification or disindemnification with the instruction. They feel a fair to biased their convictions in any contingency, and no exceptional else can noise the space to which the instruction was explanationful, fertile, informative, satisfying, or worthwhile. Habitology Elsmooth sections were chosen through purposive sampling from the Benefenjoyment of Arts, University of Karachi, including epartment of ; Peculiar Troddenion, Psychology, Collective Luck, Sociology, Mass Message, Troddenion, International Relations, English, Urdu, Persian, and Islamic erudition. Twenty scholars examineing at disequalize flatten 3 4 from each section were chosen through dately sampling to solicit their conviction environing the most efficacious command habits (as perceived by them) explanationd by their schoolmistresss, and the deliberates manage proudly rating a apex command habit.
Total couple hundred and twenty scholars were interviewed. They were craveed to rebuke opposed habits of command explanationd by their schoolmistresss on a lamina of 1- 5, exceptional regularity the latest weighty and 5 regularity the most weighty command habit. The results of the examine were compiled and irritated by percentage habit. Objectives of the Examine: • • • • To perceive extinguished the undeveloped command habits explanationd by university schoolmistresss to tell disequalize scholars in opposed sections of Benefenjoyment of Arts.
To test the conviction of scholars environing the command habit they perceived as the most sensational and best command habit. To perceive extinguished the deliberates manage perceiving any command habit as the sensational and best habit. To bring-about-ready hintions manage befitting property of command in the frivolous of scholars apprehension and explanation of ratings Perceiveings: Most of the scholars rebuked exhortation habit as the best command habit. Deliberates conceived; schoolmistress bring-about-readys perfect conception connected to theme-matter, it is space wary habit; scholars atattmind exhortation attentively and follow referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees neglect of wonder.
The bunch argument was rebuked as the relieve best habit of command accordingly of; aggravate clear-trade of scholars, the erudition is aggravate efficacious, the scholars don’t feel to believe on rote erudition, and this habit educes creativity inthorough scholars neglect of wonder. Scholars’ apprehension and ratings environing the sensational and efficacious command habits is a habit to hint amendments in command/ erudition system I. Rating of Undeveloped Command Habits: Rating was dexceptional on a lamina of 1-5, 1 – regularity the latest sensational and 5 regularity the most sensational command habit as implicated in board 1. Command habits
Rating No of 4 scholars 5 Board 1 1 N Exhortation Bunch argument Biased offeration Ordinances Seminars Luckshop Conferences Brainboarding Role denote Contingency examine 53 18 52 25 26 27 25 34 24% 08% 22% 11% 12% 12% 11% 16% 44 53 54 54 53 34 54 20% 24% 25% 25% 24% 16% 25% 26 12% 89 40% 34 16% 53 24% 53 24% 54 25% 27 12% 53 24% 53 24% 34 16% 54 25% 53 24% 35 16% 80 36% 80 36% 52 23% 44 20% 26 12% 26 12% 35 16% 53 24% 25 11% 34 16% 54 25% 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 34 34 % 16% 16% N 18 18 2 % 08% 08% N 00 3 % 00% N 4 % N 80 36 % 34 16% 5 % 220 220 88 40% 80 36% Total 54 24% 27 12% II.
Reasons manage rating undeveloped command habits as sensational and best command habits: 1. Exhortation Habit • • • • • • • • • • • • It produces odd effects. It is cheerful manage comprehensive collocate. Schoolmistress is instructiond and has headship on theme, elucidate perfect apexs and can response perfect doubts amending by scholars. Scholars can crave if they omission any straining. Attain through attending Schoolmistress elucidates perfect apexs. Scholars produce their inallay Schoolmistress examine sound theme-theme in the collocate in lenient conversation so scholars can abundantly comprehmind the theme-matter. It is cheerful manage comprehensive collocate. Schoolmistress bring-about-readys perfect conception connected to theme-matter.
Space wary as schoolmistress is reckoned to shape exhortation in space. Scholars produce their apprehensions at the mind of exhortation. 5 6 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Scholars can crave doubt if they feel any collection to comprehmind exhortation. Scholars attentively atattmind exhortation and follow referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees as the schoolmistress crave doubts at the mind of exhortation. Scholars distinguish and comprehmind basic concepts. It produces odd effects. Schoolmistress distinguishs perfect the scholars so he/she can explanation suiboard strategies manage the collocate to compel them comprehend. Schoolmistress is instructiond and has headship on theme and can response perfect doubts by scholars.
Schoolmistress distribute instruction with scholars so it produces curiosity-behalf in scholars. Scholars are aggravate implicated and bear-a-divide when schoolmistress crave doubt. Schoolmistress bring-about-readys referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees. Scholars abundantly comprehmind integral apex. Scholars distribute conception with schoolmistress. Schoolmistress is role design manage scholars. Aggravate clear-trade of scholars. Scholars atattmind to other’s conviction ; biased their conviction. Examine with schoolmistresss the apexs that were missed during argument. Scholars attain on their avow ; perceive extinguished guide apexs. Scholars substitute their effects. Scholars procure apex of apprehension of perfect and referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard medepmind those who regularly address.
Following argument when scholars produce their offeration, schoolmistress corrects their mistakes. Scholars can compel their avow referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees. The erudition is aggravate efficacious. 2. Bunch argument: 6 7 • • • • • • • • They don’t feel to believe on rote erudition. Educes creativity inthorough scholars. It evokes pondering inthorough scholars. Scholars feel space manage making-ready of theme-matter. Scholars should feel esthetic and conception precedently argument. Hintion Medepmind those scholars bear-a-divide who feel assurance tranquillity do referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard bear-a-share. Concepts beseem clear following argument. Integral scholar produces his/ her conviction. 3.
Biased offeration • Hamm (2008) quoted Rafe; “A offeration complicates motivating attenders to sanction a odd effect, change an veritable conviction, or strike on a producen announce. ” • • • • • • • • • • • Scholars carrying totally comprehmind the theme-theme precedently giving offeration i. e. headship on theme-matter. It increases assurance inthorough scholars. Cheerful habit to attain manage medepmind exceptional scholar who is offering. Scholars pursuit fate of capacitys to collect esthetic Schoolmistress’s supervision is weighty It amends the ability of elaboration on any theme-theme as the scholars pursuit theme-theme from opposed capacitys, websites neglect of wonder.
Clear erudition Produce Luck to unite other tribe of corresponding vocation. Motivate and compel scholar strikeive in erudition. Curiosity-behalfed habit. Produce Luck to unite other tribe of corresponding vocation. 5. Seminars 4. Ordinance 6. Luckshops 7 8 7. Conferences • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Produce Luck to unite other tribe of corresponding vocation. Networking with other sciences and vocationals. Aggravate sensational Aggravate informative Execute conception Erudition is efficacious Aggravate clear-trade of scholars Scholars produce their conviction Strikeive erudition Mental pondering is encouraged. Scholars ponder over their conception.
Integral exceptional procures the luck to biased their deliberations. Simple theme-matters can be attaint through opposed angles. Sensational habit Mental pondering is encouraged. Scholars ponder over their conception. Scholars possess the aspect Strikeive erudition Lenient to attain Strikeive erudition Mental pondering is encouraged. Scholars ponder over their conception. 8. Brain boarding 9. Role denote 10. Contingency examine Argument: Making command habits aggravate sensational 8 9 Prouder troddenion benefenjoyment strives to beseem aggravate efficacious schoolmistresss so that scholars can attain reform, and multifarious test habits to ammind their command exercitation.
Depending on the regularity of theme, calculate of scholars, and the facilities available, there are opposed habits schoolmistresss are using in the collocateroom. Below are producen undeveloped habits and educeed tips and techniques manage befitting these habits. (Sajjad, S. 1997) Exhortation Habit: A exhortation is a confabulation or vocal offeration producen by a exhortationr, trainer or addresser to an assembly. With perfect the aggression of trailing systems and computer technology, exhortation habit is stationary a purposebexceptional distantly explanationd in command and trailing at prouder flatten of troddenion.
This habit is niggardly, can be explanationd manage a comprehensive calculate of scholars, esthetic can be practised in a structured sort and the schoolmistress has a gigantic manage of space and esthetic. A examine conducted by Benson, L. , Schroeder, P. , Lantz, C. , and Bird, M (n. d. ). bring-about-readys proof that scholars may situate giganticer reason on exhortation esthetic than on textbooks. Lecturing is referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard badepmind a theme of established in front of a collocate and reciting what you distinguish. The collocateroom exhortation is a peculiar managem of message in which signification, gesture, move, facial biasedion, and intention contstrike can either totality or detrstrike from the succeeding. Davis. 1993). McCarthy, P. (1992) in article “Common Command Habits” systematic strengths of exhortation habit that it offers educeedtyual esthetic in plain, close sort, contains instruction which inspires, stimulates pondering to referableorious argument, and explanationful manage comprehensive bunchs. Our perceiveings to-boot orthodox that most of the scholars considered exhortation as best habit accordingly according to conviction of scholars ; it produces odd effects, it is cheerful manage comprehensive collocate, educes creativity inthorough scholars, schoolmistress is instructiond and has headship on theme, elucidate perfect apexs and can response perfect doubts by scholars.
Sullivan ; McIntosh (1996) said that with planning and efficacious offeration techniques, the exhortation can be a proudly efficacious and interclear habit manage transferring conception to scholars. Exhortation produces the tyros trailing in attending and taking flying referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees. (Kochhar. 2000, p. 345) Tips and techniques manage befitting exhortation habit • Exhortation esthetic should be racy and deliberation sharp. 9 10 • • • • Instruction should be delivered dramatically by using in to compel it great. The schoolmistress omissions to explanation doubts throughextinguished the exhortation to complicate scholars in the erudition system and to impede their conception.
Reinforce erudition by using visual supports enjoy transparencies, flip charts, whiteboard/ sombre board neglect of wonder. Schoolmistress should follow satisfypurpose of scholars to ammind exhortation habit. Argument: It is a clear vocal substitute of effects betwixt bunch constituents or schoolmistress and scholars. Manage efficacious argument the scholars should feel earlier conception and instruction environing the theme-theme to be examineed. McCarthy, P. (1992) systematic strengths of collocate argument as; pools effects and instructions from bunch, and perfectows integralexceptional to bear-a-divide in an strikeive system. Kochhar (2000, p. 47) systematic that; a collection, an children, a aspect in which there is a dissent of conviction, is suiboard manage argument habit of command. Our examine to-boot orthodox that the scholars rebuked bunch argument (collocate argument) as the relieve best habit by giving deliberates that; it has aggravate clear-trade of scholars, the erudition is aggravate efficacious, the scholars don’t feel to believe on rote erudition, integral scholar produce his/ her conviction, and this habit educes creativity inthorough scholars. Tips and techniques manage befitting argument habit • • • • • • • The schoolmistress should spmind competent space in preparing the system and steps of argument.
Opposed aspects of the theme-theme and the parameters should be chosen manage the focused argument. Competent space should be perfectotted to examine perfect the childrens. At the corresponding space scholars should distinguish the space condition to thrust a quittance. The schoolmistress in the origin should conduct-in the theme-matter, the mind of argument, and the scholars participating in argument. Precedently the roreoffer of argument, beting instruction environing the theme-theme should be easy. There is a omission to conceive doubts to bring-about-ready plainion. Relaxed environment should be produced to excite the system of argument. 10 1 • • • Schoolmistress following referableoriousing the argument should denote the role of a facilitator involving integral exceptional and at the mind should incorporate the argument. Encourage scholars atattmind other’s apex of apprehension and then evaluate their avow. Schoolmistress should produce appraise to perfect scholars’ convictions and attempt referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard to perfectow his/her avow dissent of conviction, neutralize message and deliberate. Role Denote: Role denote occurs when participants follow on opposediated roles in a hypocrisy. These may be proudly prescribed, including biographical details, and smooth personality, attitudes and reliances; or incongruously implicated by an extinguishedline of the operation or undertaking.
These techniques feel already demonstrated their applicability to a distant stroll of attainers, themes and flattens. (Singh, and Sudarshan, 2005, p 238, 239). It is a great and possessable erudition habit. To execute consummation benefits from this habit, the incidents chosen manage order should be as veritableistic as the aspect perfectows. Tips and techniques Precedently the role denote, the schoolmistress should insignificant participants environing the roles they succeed denote, produce them space manage making-ready, sanction confidentiality of role denote, and crave participants to befeel naturally. • • Schoolmistress should excellent ; insignificant observers environing their roles.
During the role denote, the schoolmistress must hold appease, atattmind ; follow referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attributablees, shirk sardonic role denote blunt, barring produce space admonition if previously agreed. The schoolmistress should be easy manage some strikeion if participants monotonous up and can glide-away as a latest haunt. • Following the role denote, the schoolmistress gratitude participants, crave manage satisfy purpose from carry participants, follow illustrates from observers, crave other participants to illustrate, • The schoolmistress should explanation role names referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard those of participants, incorporate, contemplation extinguished erudition apexs, leaving the participants with dogmatical illustrates and feelings.
Contingency Examine: Chiefly educeed in profession and jurisdiction contexts, contingency habit command can be fertilely explanationd in free arts, engineering, and troddenion. This habit is basically explanationd to educe censorious pondering and collection-solving skills, as well-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved as to 11 12 offer scholars with veritable-life aspects. The scholars are offered with a annals be of contingency naturalized on strikeual smootht or an spurious aspect and they are craveed: 1. to diagnose apex collection(s) merely. 2. to diagnose collection(s) ; bring-about-ready disentanglement(s). 3. o produce deliberates ; implications of strikeion following providing twain collection ; disentanglement. It is a space consuming habit and sometimes the contingency does referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard strikeually bring-about-ready veritable instruction. It could be in-conclusive, and incompetent instruction can carry to inalienate results. At the mind, the scholars omission to distinguish the fair response by the schoolmistress. The role of the schoolmistress in conducting the contingency examine should be to: • • • discover the contingency and biasedize the guide collections faced by the resolution compelr, biasedize the axioms required to irritate the collections and or a union into disentanglements, educe, irritate, and assimilate changenative disentanglements, and recommmind a habit of strikeion. Tips and techniques • • Contingencys should be insignificant, well-behaved-mannered-behaved-written, return veritable childrens, and referableorious to a calculate of dashing responses. Scholars should luck in bunch to bring-about-ready a written noise and/or a managemal offeration of the contingency. Brainstorming: It is a incongruously structured managem of argument manage generating effects withextinguished participants embroiled in unfertile resolution. It is a very explanationful technique manage collection solving, resolution making, mental pondering and team architecture.
It educes attending skills. Tips and techniques Ground governments manage present brainboarding cabinet conceive: • • • • There should be no cenabiding and the disorderly effects should be encouraged and annalsed withextinguished evaluation. Reason should be situated on division of effects and referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard the property. There is a omission of correspondent clear-trade of constituents. It can be unfocused so schoolmistress should distinguish how to manage argument and dispose childrens. 12 13 • It lucks well-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved in smperfect bunch Ordinance habit: Written ordinances succor in form of conception, assimilation of educeedtys and reconstruct making-ready of examinations.
It emphasizes on biased tyro luck and the habit that succors twain command and erudition systemes (Kochhar, 2000, p. 358). Tips and techniques • • Schoolmistress should recount the parameters of the theme-theme of ordinance. Freey elucidate ordinances so that scholars distinguish how to best bring-about-ready. When the ineviboard doubt, “Succeed we be tested on this? ” arises, compel abiding your response conceives referable attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard attribuboard medepmind a “yes” or “no,” barring a “accordingly . . . “. Shea, A. (2009). • Davis (1993) hints that “Produce ordinances and exams that acknowledge scholars’ sundry betings and peculiar curiosity-behalfs.
Manage in, a benefenjoyment constituent command a habit on medical and sanity trailing offered scholars a multiplicity of theme-matters manage their signal papers, including exceptional on changenative healing reliance systems. A benefenjoyment constituent in the collective sciences gave scholars an ordinance craveing them to assimilate female-only, male-only, and male-female luck bunchs. ” Approveations: • To evaluate command capability opposed habits can be explanationd including: equal revisal, self-evaluation, command portfolios, scholar luck and scholars’ ratings of command habits explanationd by their schoolmistresss. • • • Scholars must be systematic that the instruction they are giving is welcomed by the benefenjoyment and succeed be explanationd to ammind the command and erudition in the habit; inadequately they are incredible to follow the rating system seriously (Doyle. T. n. d. ). Schoolmistresss omission to school scholars in efficacious habits of giving punctilious satisfypurpose that addresses biased aspects of their erudition instruction. Schoolmistresss omission to perpetually asabiding scholars throughextinguished the semester that the ratings succeed be explanationd manage fertile changes in command/ erudition system and that there succeed be no luck of reward to the scholars.
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