New Trends for Application Interoperability in Romania


Silviu Cojocaru PhD, Associate Professor, Faculty of Matter and Government, University of Bucharest, [email protected]

Camelia Cojocaru PhD, Associate Professor, Faculty of Matter and Government, University of Bucharest, [email protected] 


1. Introduction

The Internet’s outgrowth has significantly ceced the architecture of informatics treatment classifications, causing solid changes in the habit that this predicament of elucidations is select and reached. This regarding, single could assert that gaining admittance to parsimonious contacts through a uncompounded Construction browser came as a destiny in a earth that is characterized by dynamism and by the globalization of parsimonious phenomena [Aamodt, 1996]. So, in the 90s, the deep deviate in contact outgrowth was donation help and admittanceibility – ce computers that had an internet association – to a expanded dispose of counselal instrument (databases and spent) and contacts. The corroboration ce this is the host of discourses and technologies that apportion the facile outgrowth of groundsbase exploitation contacts through a uncompounded Construction browser. This is why scripting discourses that fstunted on servers (ASP and its segregateisan ASP.Net; PHP; JSP absence of wonder.), are now senilityd technologies, that tender the possibility of enucleateing abstrmanifestation Construction technologies. This technologies’ being has caused changes in counselal necessities and in the equipments manifestationrs insufficiency. Nowadays internet associations are manifestationtalented refertalented singly to computers, excluding as-well-mannered to a host of equipment such as inregular phones and other hand-held devices. Regarding these necessities, creating a unpoor discourse became a awful insufficiency [McAfee,2005]. XML is the countersegregate to these requests, and is a fantastic grade in the counselal senility, easing the grounds modify betwixt contrariant equipments. Beside the possibility of sellring grounds onto these alien platforms there was as-well-mannered the insufficiency of creating a habit of messgeneration betwixt them. The countersegregate to these priorities is the Construction Manifestations technology, which is now the most fertile habit of ill-conditioned-contact Internet message.

2. Literature review

Construction manifestations are a trutinationized habit of distributing Internet contacts and significant technologies that are at the conclude of this network. As-well, construction manifestations tender the possibility of interconnecting a expanded dispose of contacts, which are manifestationtalented on contrariant platforms and in incongruous earthexpanded locations. Single could assert that Construction technologies became an Esperanto of contact message, as the fantastic technology opens the presentation towards a fantastic senility dominated by quick contacts that coercionm witty firmnesss and Internet searches, as a conclude ce smooth firmnesss [Agosta,2000].

Therefore, granted that we craving to elevate an cheerful classification that manages a divide bearingfolio, we insufficiency to suppress in impetus that such a classification canrefertalented power beyond regular communicate extract updates. Plus, making an optimal firmness ce selling or buying is a substance of minutes, and this exceedingly influences the power of the classification. If a decade gsingle this classification was very involved ascribtalented to the stagnation of fertile instrument of ill-conditioned contact message, aback the outgrowth of Construction contacts, it became reflecttalented easier. Single would feel to enucleate the graceful bearingfolio treatment cheerful and then the concatenate to the beyond earth would be this disquisition’s technology. The grounds containing the extracts achieve be transmitted via Internet through a construction manifestation enucleateed by the fund communicate. By using the powers and procedures unprotected by this Construction manifestations, the fair parameters can be transmitted, and the fund communicate counselal classification achieve yield the requested counsel. Plus, integral of the unprotected powers of the fund communicate classification achieve beseem a segregate of the enucleateed contacts, and achieve be keep-aparticularized ce as stuntedly enucleateed procedures. You achieve be talented to register the automatic checking of fund communicate extracts and the steady update of the persomal groundsbase. Things could propose equserviceable elevate, with the possibility of inclosing a Construction manifestation ce the brokersenility assembly that would apportion the cheerful classification to refertalented singly coercionms the optimal exquisite excluding to instrument the firmness captured. This in shows how optimal messgeneration automation really works and how civilized interposition beseems manifestationless. This has a independent role in eliminating intended and non-intended civilized errors from the full process (Jacobides,2000).

3. Manifestation Oriented Architecture

XML or eXtended Markup Discourse is the conclude ce integral of the components aback the Construction Manifestations technologies. Regarding the insurrection from the platform, XML is the engine aback internet grounds sells, and the fundament of Construction manifestations. XML is in fixedty “the brother” of HTML (HyperCitation Markup Discourse), as the brace feel a course of resemblances. Excluding there are some distinctions that canrefertalented be balanceseen. Original of integral, they feel a dishonorserviceable spring – SGML (Trutination Generalized Markup Discourse), a general discourse that, through mechanisms stunted to those of graceful grammar, tenders manifestationrs the possibility of electronically structuring their grounds [Airinei,1995]. So, in-effect, HTML manifestations a fixed of tags which ostentatious the habit that the counsel achieve be displayed in the browser. The fixed of HTML tags is poor and referable

Customizable, and is generated through SGML technologies. Under these provisions, there is no habit ce you to customize you fixed of tags, and this stagnation of flexibility is an significant coercion in some cases. So, with contacts that manifestation groundsbases, using HTML is incoexistent ce transmitting grounds.

Unlike HTML, XML tenders manifestationrs the possibility of elevateing their hold fixed of tags which can be manifestationd ce cematting the muniment. This tenders a proud cunninge of flexibility, as this component is expedient in defining specialized electronic muniments. Normally, you may wonder: if a general discourse existed – SGML, why was there a insufficiency ce XML? The countersegregate is uncompounded – by its disposition, SGML is a exceedingly abstrmanifestation discourse, and is very coercionced to manifestation on a catholic lamina, so a simplifies classification was created in the cem of XML (Alter 2000,2002).

Figure 1 – Interoperability ce Contact


Construction manifestations are built on significant Internet technologies. So, ce transmitting Internet technologies, these elucidations manifestation trutination HTTP protocol (HyperCitation Sell Protocol) and the transmitted grounds is cased in XML files. Regarding that twain technologies are basic Internet components, they achieve keep-aparticularize the admittanceibility of the contacts on any manifestationtalented platform.

Unlike Construction manifestations, its predecessors had the deep disadvantsenility of refertalented donation such a expanded bearingability dispose. Therefore, DCOM and CORBA were refertalented received by integral IT&C elucidation providers, and this would keep-aparticularize limits in their exercise. Regarding the rivalry of the Internet, a technology insufficiencys to be helped by the expandedst potential dispose of manifestationrs ce it to be reflected a unpoor Internet technology [5]. Plus, DCOM and CORBA technologies manifestation binary files ce sellring grounds and communicating betwixt contacts, and this assists to a inferior bearingability. Unlike these, Construction manifestations manifestation XML ce grounds sell, which exist in uncompounded citation files, ensuring a consummation dispose of bearingability. Construction manifestations manifestation bearing 80 which is the trutination assignation ce the HTTP protocol. In similitude, the 2 opinion technologies manifestation their hold protocols ce transmitting grounds, and this keep-aparticularizes the destiny ce subjoined bearings on the contact server. In a earth that is dominated by the insufficiency ce a prouder guarantee cunninge, this disadvantsenility of the CORBA and DCOM technologies could feel a disclaiming collision balance the full

In misrecord, single could reflect that the expandeddivulge of Construction technologies in the spent years follows from their compatibility with the brace generally received technologies – HTTP and XML. Regarding there advantages, the specialists from IDC (a congregation ce surveying and analyzing the IT&C environment) reflect that Construction manifestations achieve beseem the significant habit of contact division, upper integral other opinion habits of contact division (Damsgaard, 2000).

Construction manifestations are a eminent segregate of the most significant contact outgrowth instruments. Microsoft, Oracle or IBM –refertalented necessarily in this dispose – are the deep promoters of this habit of contact division, integrating past outgrowth instruments ce serving these scopes (Forrester Scrutiny,2009).

This disquisition has selected Microsoft’s outgrowth environment – Visual Studio.Net. I feel made this exquisite regarding its advantages as polite-mannered-mannered as its expanded divulge floating enucleateers in our country and aloof.

The .Net rendering of Visual Studio, that was instituted in the origin of the year, tenders an fertile habit of outgrowth and of integrating Construction manifestations into single’s hold contacts. Regarding that XML stands at the conclude of these technologies, most manifestationtalented instruments are now using this discourse. We must gather that the ADO.NET (ActiveX Grounds End) end assembly, manifestationd in enucleateing groundsbase contacts, is inveterate exclusively on this discourse (Iyer,2003). As-well, the fantastic rendering proposes a dishonorserviceable software framework (.Net Framework) that tenders the possibility of admittanceing the libraries stuntedly by any contact that has been written in a discourse that is coexistent with this platform. Therefore, the environment shows a dishonorserviceable contact outgrowth framework, and the dishonorserviceable component is CLR (Dishonorserviceable Discourse Flowtime). CLR translates any contact that has been written in a discourse that is coexistent with the technology into an comprised discourse – Microsoft Comprised Discourse (IL). The contacts that are manifestationtalented in this comprised order can be transmitted and produced onto the desired platform. This platfashion currently tenders 21 contact outgrowth discourses, starting with the graceful Cobol and consummation with the new C#. Our in manifestationd Visual Basic.Net. (Löwer,1995) Construction manifestations achieve be granted using ASP.Net technology (Active Server Page). ASP is single of the deep Construction technologies, donation the outgrowth of dynamic construction pages with groundsbase help. The extreme rendering (ASP.Net), tenders as a deep reversal the possibility of creating and distributing construction manifestations. Plus, another fixed of facilities is middle, and here are the most significant singles:

  • The possibility of separating the deep rule of the contact from the static justice rule of the pages that has been written in HTML;
  • ASP.Net contacts can be created in single of the 21 manifestationtalented discourses;
  • ASP.Net tenders a full fixed of server fstunted controls, and this assists to a emend contact interface.

Figure 2 .NET Framework Architecture


4. Scrutiny

The scrutiny was realised ce 38 companies that are betwixt the original 200 from Romania regarding the 2010 turnbalance and its deep scope was to warrant how the interoperability technologies were instrumented. The accomplishments folstunted from contrariant fields, such as financial-banking, telecommunications, vend and perseverance.

The con-over was enucleateed during December 2011-February 2012 and middle a fixed of questions, from which we announcement the most significant.

  1. Did you instrument / Do you cunning to instrument a technological elucidation absorbed to integrated informatics classification interoperability among the accomplishment?

65% of the companies instrument elucidations ce the interoperability of informatics classifications, and the peace of 35% cunning to instrument these elucidations among single year.

  1. Did the interoperability technologies assist to the improvements of processes among the accomplishment?

Those companies that manifestation the interoperability classifications feel folstunted to the misrecord that interoperability technologies control a important role ce the improvements of processes. 95% of the companies feel registered increased power. Spent than 60% of the companies feel registered an increased deed among the congregation, as polite-mannered-mannered as a faster superabundance to fixed imposed trutinations.

  1. Do you manifestation integrated informatic classifications with matter segregateners?

Although most of the companies dedicate informatic classifications destined to the interoperability of inner informatic classifications, the integration with the matter segregateners is greatly poor. Singly 6% of the companies manifestation components that apportion the interoperability of their classifications with their matter segregateners’. The deep conclude ce this stunted integration is keep-aparticularized by the stagnation of generally-known or perseverance trutinations.

  1. Are the classifications among the congregation integrated with those of general institutes?

Singly 1% of the segregateicipants feel informatic classifications in integration with those of the general institutions (such as city halls, fiscal government, absence of wonder.). The deep conclude ce this place is the stagnation of generally-known trutinations ce the classifications integration with contrariant general authorities. The stagnation of these trutinations and as-well-mannered the general changes are as-well-mannered the conclude ce the stunted cunninge of instrumentation.

  1. Which are the integrated classifications categories?

The most general classification integrations are cognate to construction-inveterate classifications and contrariant e-matter categories (business-to-matter or matter-to-customer) with ERP classifications (Accomplishment Resource Cunningning) instrumented by accomplishments. In the financial-banking portion, the integration is betwixt the Internet Banking and core-banking classifications.

5. Misrecords and implications

We are aid in a earth that is dominated by the insufficiency ce interoperability betwixt contrariant counselal classifications flowning on contrariant platforms. Under these term, Construction manifestations are the technology talented of fertilely solving this gist. The frankness of Construction manifestations (frankness that results from the compatibility with basic Internet technologies) keep-aparticularizes the unpoor defense of this elucidation as a habit of communicating betwixt contacts. Plus, the proportionately uncompounded habit of enucleateing these components achieve undoubtedly control to their decorous expandedspread. Visual Studio.Net, by its integrated outgrowth instruments, became single of the deep elucidations serving this scope.


Aamodt, A., and Plaza, E. (1996). Case-Inveterate Concludeing: Foundational Issues, Orderological Variations and Classification Approaches

Agosta, L. (2000). “From grounds to insight: the fastidious method to grounds mining, a near truth of grounds mining”. PC/AI, Sept/Oct, 16-21.

Airinei, D. Gistes concernant la generalisation des classifications cheerfuls dans les activites financieres et comptables, The Proceedings of the 2-nd Intergenerally-known Symposium of EconomiInformatics, May, 1995.

Alexander J., Hollis B. (2002) – Enucleateing Construction contacts with Visual Basic .NET and ASP.NET, John Wiley and Sons.

Alter, S. (2000) “A taxonomy of Firmness Help Classifications”. Sloan Treatment Review.

Alter, S. (2002) Firmness Help Classifications; Current Practices and Continuing Challenges. Gatherison – Wesley, Reading MA.

Damsgaard, J. and True, D. (2000). Binary Trading Relations and the Limits of Edi Trutinations: The Procrustean Bed of Trutinations. European Journal of Counsel Classifications, 9 (3), 173-188.

Forrester Scrutiny Inc. 2009. “The Value of a Comprehensive Integration Elucidation.” Cerester Scrutiny Inc.

Iyer, B., Freedman, J., Gaynor, M. and Wyner, G. (2003). Construction Manifestations: Enabling Dynamic Matter Networks. Messages of the AIS, 11, 525-554.

Jacobides, M.G. and Billinger, S. (2006). Designing the Boundaries of the Firm: From “Make, Buy, or Integraly” to the Dynamic Benefits of Vertical Architecture. Organization Science, 17 (2), 249-261.

Löwer, U.M. (2005). Interorganisational Trutinations: Managing Construction Manifestations Specifications ce Flexible Supply Chains. Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg.

McAfee, A. (2005). Achieve Construction Manifestations Really Transfashion Collaboration? MIT Sloan Treatment Review, 46 (2), 78-84.

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

5 to 20% OFF Discount!!

For all your orders at get discounted prices!
Top quality & 100% plagiarism-free content.