Notes on the European Union

1) Key presumptive vestibulees to the European Integration Background – Subjective treatment -­? to apprehpurpose the theories of European integration, it is weighty to deem the subjective treatment from which the conception of European integration emerged Federalism – Altiero Spinelli -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? Spinelli: head of the European Union of Federalists: Conception: behind the Second Universe Engagement, the classes most free bedejected senile-antique general classification gain inquire a innovating manage of beggarlywealth divorceicularizes, that effectiveness answer unlicensed, excepting the strength gain repay to the free classes at-last a? renewing engagement betwixt divorceicularizes Proposal: o obviate this fruit, engender a federal European divorceicularize to secondary general councils to a federal instance a? management of the Federalists, aimed to engender a federal structure restraint Europe Fruit: Congress took age to frame, smitten situate in Hague in 1948. By that age, general collective classifications were alspeedy re-­? ordinary a? Congress crusty into the Council of Europe, referable a innovating federal structureal manage Problem: variation of Europe, unanalogous connotations in unanalogous divorce of Europe Mitrany: born in Romania, lived in UK and US, to raise a “working calm classification”, influencing integration heorists Against federalism b/c: o Undivided universe council = intimidation to personal insubservience o Regional federations = reproducing general rivalries on a larger lamina Conception: spring of the engagement = generalism Proposal: engender a disunited intergeneral negotiative agencies, each with instance aggravate specific area of cosmical animation o Design: personal tasks smitten quenched of the curb of the council, handing tboundary to the negotiative agencies o Argument: Councils gain yield curb accordingly they gain referable dismay the waste of rule aggravate e. g. sanity trouble, excepting rather reckon the advantages of such tasks performed at the egional/universe flatten o a? the prefer areas of curb concealed, the close divorceicularizes are suitable of refractory action a? the harder it is to smash from the agencies Jean Monnet: cunningner of a Sccosmical Cunning Combining conceptions of negotiativeism and federalism, sharp restraint the neofunctionalist design of European integration Negotiativeism – David Mitrany -­? -­? -­? -­? Negotiative-­? Federalism – Jean Monnet -­? -­? -­? -­? Conception: European beggarlywealth divorceicularize is uneven as an economic item Proposal: developing of suprageneral institutions as the foundation restraint raiseing economic beggarlywealth (coal and steel at the extinguishedset) o Design: abstract ontrol of the strategically sharp industries (coal and steel) from the councils, handing aggravate to a free-­? lasting action (Eminent Instance) o Challenge: Western German Divorceicularize o Solution: strategic industries abstractd from German curb; ensuring complete anticipation of coal restraint the French steel diligence a? economies are interconnected Theories Neofuncionalism – Ernst Haas -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? Pluralist design – divorceicularize referable a undivided unified maker, neither it is the simply maker on the intergeneral amount (non-­? divorceicularize makers so weighty) Integration = rule, uniformly inaugurated, would belowmine the rule of divorceicularizes eyond the expectations of councils Activities of divorceicularizes = quenchedcome of pluralistic collective rule, in which council decisions are governd by the attention groups and bureaucratic makers European Commission = most weighty non-­? divorceicularize intergeneral maker, manipulating private and intergeneral governs on general councils to proceeding to rule of European integration Mechanisms of the integration o Spillaggravate §? Integration in undivided sector gain principle integration in prefer sectors, in manage to largely like the benefits of the integration of the initiatory sector 1. Negotiative spillaggravate • Economies made up of nterconnected divorces a? unusable to dissociate undivided sector from others • If MS integrated undivided sector of the economies, the interconnectedness betwixt the sectors gain administer to a spillaggravate into other sectors • Integration in undivided sector gain conclusion simply if the interconnected sector is so integrated • E. g. : increasing coal restraintmation athwart MS requires brining other restraintms of intelligence into the design. Otherwise, switch by undivided MS loose from coal towards e. g. gloze or nuclear fuel gain toss quenched perfect the calculations restraint coal restraintmation 2. Collective spillaggravate • Raiseing up collective govern in condescension of prefer integration • Uniformly ne sector is integrated, lobbying of attention groups occurs at suprageneral flatten (the structure in admonish of present that sector) -­? -­? Groups gain reckon the benefits as a conclusion of integration, realizing the barriers obviateing these benefits from substance largely likeed (referable integrating other sectors) a? advocating prefer integration and lobbying the councils • E. g. : ECSC makes the representatives it the coal and steel diligence switching the lobby activities (partly) from general councils to the innovating suprageneral action (Eminent Instance) o Technocratic automaticity §? Institutions engenderd gain bail urther integration as they grace prefer strengthful and autonomous than component divorceicularizes Assessment of the design o 1950s: neofunctionalism = totaluring design explaining the transition from the ECSC into EC o 1960s: the purpose of neofunctionalism – Empty Chair Crisis (1965 – 1966) Gaulle’s veto; general councils showing strength they are speedy to portraiture to mention the constitution and trudge of integration Aspects to be deemed – design referable regularly ancilla o Pluralist collective structures §? Component divorceicularizes must be unlicensed o Substantial economic and industrial fruit §? A sure flatten of fruit – no moderatecible rupture unarranged boundary o Beggarly ideology unarranged divorceicipating items §? No centrally purposed economies • Mistakes of neofunctionalism: o Regional integration is referable a self-­? contained rule, excepting govern by a roam intergeneral treatment o Councils are solely strengthful makers as they had restraintmal rule and unlicensed legitimacy o integration in dejected politics, referable eminent politics (general assurance, plea) as divorceicularizes tpurpose to defend their rule (advocated by French in 1950) general council curbs the constitution and trudge of integration in manage to defend and elevate general attention acknowledges the consequence of other ctors than councils: o dejected politics (e. g. collective cunning): attention groups did govern, excepting were no the simply undivideds – so council officials, divorceies in appointment rejects the design of spillaggravate effects: rejects the conception of beggarly assurance cunning, restrainteign cunning or beggarly moderatetified restraintces strength of suprageneral institutions increased accordingly councils believed it to be their general attention a? integration simply as remote as the council perfectows strength to the European Council and Council of Europe Intergovernmentalism – Stanley Hoffman -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? Liberal intergovernmentalism – Andrew Moravcsik -­? -­? ational attentions = divorce of a private collective rule, amid which economic attentions are dominant two-­? flatten diversion o call-moderate cunning §? collective elites, lobbyist, attention groups are acting and restraintming the call-moderate of the divorceicularize a? private events govern the call-fors of divorceicularize attentions on the intergeneral flatten o afford cunning §? interacting of each divorceicularize with dashing attentions on the flatten of intergovernmental sessions – Council of Ministers • 1st amount – grasp compact on the beggarly cunning • 2nd amount – grasp compact on institutional arrangements suprageneral institutions refer transactional costs – prefer fficient to co-­? be a? institutions = tools, the deep argument is on component divorceicularizes that can refer the strength of its suprageneral bodies Design applied on hawking of the Treaties of Rome (1955 – 58), Consolidation of the beggarly communicate and CAP (1958 – 83), hawking of SEA (1984 – 88), hawking of the Treaty on EU (1988 – 91) a? conclusions: 1. Decisions = reflecting of the preferences of general councils, referable preferences of suprageneral structures 2. General preferences = reflecting of the neutralize of economic attentions 3. delegating the strength to the suprageneral instance instrument to secure the ommitments of perfect divorceies, referable a faith in the imminent teachableness of intergeneral structures -­? -­? Extra Suprageneral governance – Stundivided Sweet, Sandholtz -­? -­? EU referable undivided intergeneral regimes, excepting a rotation of regimes Increased transactions athwart general borders would engender suprageneral sodality that condescensioned the figment of suprageneral rules (prefer absolute restraint agency) Multi-­? flatten governance – Gary Marks -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? rather an vestibule – EU as a collective classification with interconnected institutions being at multiple flattens with sole features general council = weighty decisional role, uprageneral institutions = autonomic role multiflatten actions by multiflatten makers (lobbies, companies, divorceies, divorceicularizes, attention groups) at interdiplomatic, divorceicularize and regional flatten a? no loftier maker, they are correspondent numerous indignified relations being (European norms), that are respected by unanalogous makers design does referable harangue the manifestation of transferring rule and allegiance Constructivism -­? -­? rather an vestibule defender of Europeanization, establishing beggarly norms, habits, cultivation to fruit herd concertedly – innovating collective beggarlywealth (ministries with European portion to synchronize the policies with the undivideds of he EU) – recognizes multi-­? flatten governance approved in EU 15 -­? 2) Restraintmation of 3 Communities in the treatment of economic and collective fruits in post-­? WWII Europe ECSC – 1952 – Treaty of Paris EEC, EURATOM – 1957 – Treaty of Rome Motives restraint the restraintmation of the Communities -­? -­? -­? -­? Reaction to the Universe Engagements: horrifying sample (lost lives) a? inquireing a calmful and steadfast European environment, collective and economic coagency instead of rivalry Soviet intimidation: coagency blocks prefer Soviet disquisition a? Csenile-antique engagement = catalyst restraint integration of western Europe Collective gainingness: collective oagency and fruit replacing economic rivalry, viewed as a fmaker in the quenchedsmash of engagements o countries inquireing coagency restraint unanalogous reasons §? Germany, Italy – inquireing respectability §? France – inquireing assurance from Gernumerous Economic fruit: destroyed Europe needed reconstruction o Marshperfect cunning (US attentioned in Europe) – financing the reconstruction of Europe, establishing what is now notorious as OECD o Bretton Woods Conference §? 1944, 44 beggarlywealths to converse abquenched post-­? engagement economic manage §? GATT §? IMF (to govern the intergeneral monetary and financial manage a? steadfast vary reprove) Schuman:

French Restrainteign Minister; cunning in collaboration with Jean Monnet Key points o relations betwixt France and Gernumerous needs to be vigorous o linking French and German coal and steel diligence by placing bedejected curb of a suprageneral substance a? making engagement unthinkable and materially unusable (coal and steel = needed to fruit armaments, thus facility of waging engagement) UK no concerned in hawkings 1950 Sccosmical cunning -­? -­? -­? ECSC – Treaty of Paris (1951/1952) -­? -­? -­? refer tariffs by august levies on coal and steel restraintmation failed to engender a undivided communicate restraint coal and steel a? prefer trudge needed attached by

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