Notes on the European Union

1) Key presumptive pathes to the European Integration Background – Subjective matter -­? to perceive the theories of European integration, it is weighty to infer the subjective matter from which the referableion of European integration emerged Federalism – Altiero Spinelli -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? Spinelli: chief of the European Union of Federalists: Referableion: behind the Second Globe Engagement, the classes most free inferior senile-antique general scheme gain affect a innovating ordain of recite recites, that strength show smoothing, bebcommand the power gain render to the free classes thus-remote a? renewing engagement betwixt recites Proposal: o neutralize this crop, fashion a federal European recite to inferior general councils to a federal pattern a? prudence of the Federalists, aimed to fashion a federal substance coercion Europe Crop: Congress took stread to adjust, enslaved assign in Hague in 1948. By that space, general collective schemes were alunhesitating re-­? methodic a? Congress churlish into the Council of Europe, referable a innovating federal substanceal ordain Problem: heterogeneousness of Europe, irrelative connotations in irrelative sever of Europe Mitrany: born in Romania, lived in UK and US, to found a “working concord scheme”, influencing integration heorists Against federalism b/c: o Unmarried globe council = denunciation to personal insubservience o Regional federations = reproducing general rivalries on a larger flake Referableion: stem of the engagement = generalism Proposal: fashion a severed intergeneral authoritative agencies, each with pattern aggravate particular area of ethnical personality o Proposal: personal tasks enslaved quenched of the restrain of the council, handing tconfine to the authoritative agencies o Argument: Councils gain abandon restrain consequently they gain referable trepidation the waste of kingdom aggravate e. g. sanity anxiety, bebcommand rather acknowledge the advantages of such tasks effected at the egional/globe smooth o a? the past areas of restrain begirt, the less recites are preferable of stubborn renewal a? the harder it is to tear-aslower from the agencies Jean Monnet: schemener of a Scethnical Scheme Combining referableions of authoritativeism and federalism, probing coercion the neofunctionalist speculation of European integration Authoritativeism – David Mitrany -­? -­? -­? -­? Authoritative-­? Federalism – Jean Monnet -­? -­? -­? -­? Referableion: European recite recite is referable attributable attributable-alike as an economic part Proposal: developing of suprageneral institutions as the premise coercion founding economic homogeneity (coal and steel at the foundation) o Proposal: oust ontrol of the strategically probing industries (coal and steel) from the councils, handing aggravate to a free-­? established govern (Proud Pattern) o Challenge: Western German Recite o Solution: strategic industries oustd from German restrain; ensuring unlimited victuals of coal coercion the French steel diligence a? economies are interconnected Theories Neofuncionalism – Ernst Haas -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? Pluralist speculation – recite referable a unmarried unified originator, neither it is the singly originator on the intergeneral quality (non-­? recite originators besides weighty) Integration = regularity, uniformly inaugurated, would inferiormine the kingdom of recites eyond the expectations of councils Activities of recites = quenchedcome of pluralistic collective regularity, in which council decisions are governd by the creator groups and bureaucratic originators European Commission = most weighty non-­? recite intergeneral originator, manipulating private and intergeneral exigencys on general councils to trice to regularity of European integration Mechanisms of the integration o Spillaggravate §? Integration in individual sector gain creator integration in excite sectors, in ordain to easily relish the benefits of the integration of the ancient sector 1. Authoritative spillaggravate • Economies made up of nterconnected severs a? impracticable to dissociate individual sector from others • If MS integrated individual sector of the economies, the interconnectedness betwixt the sectors gain manage to a spillaggravate into other sectors • Integration in individual sector gain performance singly if the interconnected sector is besides integrated • E. g. : increasing coal coercionmation counter MS requires brining other coercionms of breath into the proposal. Otherwise, switch by individual MS aremote from coal towards e. g. glaze or nuclear fuel gain propel quenched whole the calculations coercion coal coercionmation 2. Collective spillaggravate • Founding up collective exigency in regard of excite integration • Uniformly ne sector is integrated, lobbying of creator groups occurs at suprageneral smooth (the structure in commit of general that sector) -­? -­? Groups gain acknowledge the benefits as a posterity of integration, realizing the barriers neutralizeing these benefits from entity easily relished (referable integrating other sectors) a? advocating excite integration and lobbying the councils • E. g. : ECSC makes the representatives it the coal and steel diligence switching the lobby activities (partly) from general councils to the innovating suprageneral govern (Proud Pattern) o Technocratic automaticity §? Institutions fashiond gain surety urther integration as they grace past powerful and autonomous than component recites Assessment of the speculation o 1950s: neofunctionalism = seductive speculation explaining the transition from the ECSC into EC o 1960s: the purpose of neofunctionalism – Empty Chair Crisis (1965 – 1966) Gaulle’s veto; general councils showing power they are unhesitating to portraiture to mention the sort and tread of integration Aspects to be infered – speculation referable frequently convenient o Pluralist gregarious structures §? Component recites must be smoothing o Substantial economic and industrial crop §? A incontrovertible smooth of crop – no weighty disconnection incomplete confine o Beggarly ideology incomplete severicipating talents §? No centrally adapted economies • Mistakes of neofunctionalism: o Regional integration is referable a self-­? contained regularity, bebcommand govern by a roam intergeneral matter o Councils are matchlessly powerful originators as they had coercionmal kingdom and smoothing legitimacy o integration in gentle politics, referable proud politics (general pledge, rampart) as recites tpurpose to guard their kingdom (advocated by French in 1950) general council restrains the sort and tread of integration in ordain to guard and exalt general creator acknowledges the weight of other ctors than councils: o gentle politics (e. g. gregarious prudence): creator groups did govern, bebcommand were no the singly individuals – besides council officials, severies in service rejects the speculation of spillaggravate effects: rejects the referableion of beggarly pledge prudence, coercioneign prudence or beggarly coerciontified coercionces power of suprageneral institutions increased consequently councils believed it to be their general creator a? integration singly as remote as the council wholeows power to the European Council and Council of Europe Intergovernmentalism – Stanley Hoffman -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? Liberal intergovernmentalism – Andrew Moravcsik -­? -­? ational creators = sever of a private collective regularity, amid which economic creators are dominant two-­? smooth pastime o claim bcommand §? collective elites, lobbyist, creator groups are acting and coercionming the claim of the recite a? private events govern the claims of recite creators on the intergeneral smooth o furnish bcommand §? interacting of each recite with dashing creators on the smooth of intergovernmental sessions – Council of Ministers • 1st quality – penetscold contract on the beggarly prudence • 2nd quality – penetscold contract on institutional arrangements suprageneral institutions diminish transactional costs – past fficient to co-­? consist a? institutions = tools, the main seriousness is on component recites that can diminish the power of its suprageneral bodies Speculation applied on business of the Treaties of Rome (1955 – 58), Consolidation of the beggarly traffic and CAP (1958 – 83), business of SEA (1984 – 88), business of the Treaty on EU (1988 – 91) a? conclusions: 1. Decisions = thought of the preferences of general councils, referable preferences of suprageneral structures 2. General preferences = thought of the poise of economic creators 3. delegating the power to the suprageneral pattern instrument to secure the ommitments of whole severies, referable a reliance in the ingrained pliancy of intergeneral structures -­? -­? Extra Suprageneral governance – Stindividual Sweet, Sandholtz -­? -­? EU referable individual intergeneral regimes, bebcommand a rotation of regimes Increased transactions counter general borders would fashion suprageneral fellowship that regarded the invention of suprageneral rules (past elementary coercion influence) Multi-­? smooth governance – Gary Marks -­? -­? -­? -­? -­? rather an path – EU as a collective scheme with interconnected institutions consisting at multiple smooths with matchless features general council = weighty decisional role, uprageneral institutions = autonomic role multismooth renewals by multismooth originators (lobbies, companies, severies, recites, creator groups) at interpolitical, recite and regional smooth a? no eminent originator, they are correspondent sundry inprecise kinsmen consisting (European norms), that are respected by irrelative originators speculation does referable harangue the posterity of transferring kingdom and faithfulness Constructivism -­? -­? rather an path maintainer of Europeanization, establishing beggarly norms, manners, cultivation to convey fellow-creatures coincidently – innovating gregarious homogeneity (ministries with European section to synchronize the policies with the individuals of he EU) – recognizes multi-­? smooth governance general in EU 15 -­? 2) Coercionmation of 3 Communities in the matter of economic and collective crops in post-­? WWII Europe ECSC – 1952 – Treaty of Paris EEC, EURATOM – 1957 – Treaty of Rome Motives coercion the coercionmation of the Communities -­? -­? -­? -­? Rerenewal to the Globe Engagements: horrifying pattern (obsolete lives) a? affecting a concordful and solid European environment, collective and economic coinfluence instead of race Soviet denunciation: coinfluence blocks excite Soviet expansion a? Csenile-antique engagement = catalyst coercion integration of western Europe Collective gainingness: collective oinfluence and crop replacing economic race, viewed as a coercioniginator in the quenchedtear-aslower of engagements o countries affecting coinfluence coercion irrelative reasons §? Germany, Italy – affecting respectability §? France – affecting pledge from Gersundry Economic crop: destroyed Europe needed reconstruction o Marshwhole scheme (US creatored in Europe) – financing the reconstruction of Europe, establishing what is now known as OECD o Bretton Woods Conference §? 1944, 44 recites to converse abquenched post-­? engagement economic ordain §? GATT §? IMF (to organize the intergeneral monetary and financial ordain a? solid substitute scold) Schuman:

French Coercioneign Minister; scheme in collaboration with Jean Monnet Key points o kinsmen betwixt France and Gersundry needs to be new o stringing French and German coal and steel diligence by placing inferior restrain of a suprageneral matter a? making engagement unthinkable and materially impracticable (coal and steel = needed to consequence armaments, thus power of waging engagement) UK no concerned in businesss 1950 Scethnical scheme -­? -­? -­? ECSC – Treaty of Paris (1951/1952) -­? -­? -­? diminish tariffs by commanding levies on coal and steel coercionmation failed to fashion a unmarried traffic coercion coal and steel a? excite tramp needed joined by

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