OSCOLA Citation style

OSCOLA Extract style

The Oxford University Standard coercion Extract of Legitimate Composerities (OSCOLA) is a habit of citing and referencing legitimate materials. It was plain by Peter Birk, Hirt Publishing, Oxford University Press, and statute students from Oxford University in 2000.

OSCOLA verifications footnotes to indicate origins, and they contain of weak superscript aggregate located internally the quotation and a similar footnote. The superscripted calculate should show succeeding a straightforward quote or a disquisition.


Voting is a cosmical equitable. 9

The superscripted calculate should show succeeding the punctuation. If the quote is in unites, spread the superscripted calculate antecedently the noncommunication unite.

There are brace types of origins; original origins and minor origins. Copys of original origins conceive; circumstances and statues. Magnitudes, journals, and plan statements are minor origins.

Citing circumstances

When citing circumstances in a footnote, coercionm abiding you conceive the indicate, impartial extract, magnitude, and the original page of the statute announce, spread the indicate of the flatter at the object. If you possess already observationed the indicate of the flatter in the quotation, you don’t possess to recapitulate it.


The Phipps v Smith circumstance is a penny cogitation of fighting coercion fairness. 32

The footnote of the overhead copy would show as follows.

32 [1960] 2 AC 47 (HL) 123

The calculate at the object is unreserved as the pinpoint. It represents the page calculate.

Citing comp

If integral the instruction environing a origin is granted in the quotation, you do referable attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation possess to indicate it using a footnote. However, if it is referable attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attributable, you must indicate it.

Coercion copy

Defamation is unfair. 21

The footnote would show as follows

21 Cosmical Equitables Act of 1999, s3

When citing past than unique origin in a unique declaration, disconnected the superscripted aggregate using semi-colons. Spread comp antecedently circumstances and the original origins antecedently minor origins.

Citing minor origins

When citing a magnitude, verification footnotes.


According to Hart, there are brace types of legislative activities that are consentaneous with the precept of antecedent. 35


35 HLA Hart, The Concept of Statute (2end ed. Clarendon Press 1994)

Following extracts

Although some statute firms and schools elect congruity bountiful instruction environing a origin generous span you observation it, there are incongruous habits of citing following extracts.

In circumstances, a inadequate coercionm of the circumstance indicate helps fulfill the origin. Comp verification abbreviations in following extracts. In minor origins such as magnitudes, the composer’s surindicate is verificationd.

In circumstance the following extract is straightway succeeding the bountiful extract in the footnote. The tidings ‘ibid’ is verificationd.


Commas are verificationd to disconnected multitudinous sections, such as composer and heading in the footnotes.  It does referable attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation conceive bountiful stops among abbreviations and initials.


AC represents Appeal Circumstances

In longer works, unique may be required to conceive original origins such as a catalogue of abbreviations, comp, and consultation of circumstances at the preparation and a bibliography coercion minor origins at the object.

In inadequateer documents such as articles and essays, the abbreviations should be conceived in the quotation. In magnitudes and topic, they should show in the precursive pages. The catalogue of abbreviations comes antecedently the consultations. The consultations are anfractuous to strengthen the reader to similarity the page calculate of the record. The consultation of circumstances comes antecedently the consultation of comp.

The bibliography should be arranged in chronological manage established on the composer’s surname.  Unlike footnotes, the composer’s surindicate precedes the other initials in the bibliography. It does referable attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation possess a superscripted calculate.

Copy of a extract in a footnote

13 James Smith, The Importance of Cosmical Equitables (Philip Publishing 2003).

Copy of a extract in a bibliography

Smith J, The Importance of Cosmical Equitables (Philip Publishing 2003)


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