Parenting Styles and Assertiveness Essay

A few years in the past, ladies had been normally relegated to home duties, in contrast to males who had been at all times seen in social interactions. Nonetheless, lately, ladies have attracted a lot consideration within the space of social interplay. Curiously, whereas some ladies can skillfully work together socially, on the a part of different ladies, social interplay is a troublesome activity. Social interplay has been carefully tied with assertion (Mcfall et al., 1982). On this method, assertion has been linked with formal training (Karagozoglu et al., 2008) and parenting kinds (Zahra, Khanem and AhmadiGatab, 2011).

In the meantime, it's evident that some ladies exhibit assertion, however haven't had any formal training. Due to this fact, it is very important examine assertiveness amongst younger ladies within the gentle of parenting kinds as a result of McWayne et al. (2008) notes that quite a few research have proved parenting kinds as central to the outcomes of kids in our society.


In reviewing literature, Crawford and Gervasio (1989) grouped assertiveness into three primary definitions. These embody: the implications of conduct, self expression and private rights.

A number of different commentators and researchers have integrated partly, or all of those of their try to outline assertiveness. As an example, Athen (1991) describes assertiveness as the power to specific oneself in addition to one’s rights with out violating the rights of others. Therefore, a person is alleged to be assertive when she is ready to specific her ideas and emotions in a fashion that clearly states her wants whereas retaining the traces of communication open with others. As well as, assertiveness might also be known as the power to make requests, actively disagree; specific private rights and emotions; provoke, keep, or disengage from conversations and to face up for themselves (Fensterheim and Baer,1975).

For Rabin and Zelner (1992,p. 19) it's “a behaviour which permits individuals to behave in their very own greatest curiosity, with out anxiousness, to speak needs, emotions and objectives in addition to keep private rights in conditions of interpersonal stress, with out being both aggressive to the opposite individual or passive with regard to their very own pursuits.” Abbassi and Singh (2006) factors out three indicators of assertiveness in marital relationships. These are braveness, authenticity and autonomy. In line with Abbassi and Singh (2006), braveness is represented by traits similar to sturdy self-confidence, self-regard, boldness, fearlessness, non-submissiveness (however non-aggressiveness), straightforwardness, achievement striving, and management.

Abbassi and Singh (2006) clarify authenticity in conjugal relationship as truthfulness on the a part of people, honesty, spontaneous, real (reasonably than being synthetic or pretentious or having a false entrance), simple (having the ability to say no with out feeling responsible), frank, and candid or fair-mindedness (having candor in taking duty). Autonomous men and women usually have a way of independence or self- sufficiency and are more likely to need to make their very own choices. Due to this fact, men and women who're autonomous are typically versatile, change oriented, open minded, tolerant of range, and respectful of different individuals’s freedom and rights (Abbassi and Singh 2006). It has additionally been argued that people with assertive behaviours have excessive shallowness and are additionally profitable in life (Karagozoglu et al, 2008).

Assertiveness, Gender and Age

Assertiveness when examined via the lens of gender has raised many arguments each inside and out of doors of educational discourse (Athen, 1991). This has arisen because of the common stereotyping of gender roles on this planet over. That is extra the case in Africa (particularly, in Ghana), in that gender roles are considerably inflexible and gender variations are closely emphasised (Onyeizugbo, 2003). The time period gender used right here refers back to the common idea of being female and male. It refers to bodily traits, social behaviors, attribute self-image, psychological tendencies, behavioral tendencies, and skills that enable us to distinguish between women and men (Onyeizugbo, 2003). Thus, males are anticipated to be extra assertive (even aggressive), bold and powerful, whereas ladies are anticipated to be submissive, passive and mild in addition to unassertive (Onyeizuigbo, 2003). Gender function stereotyping borders on sexism and imposes a restrict on the extent to which ladies can assert or specific themselves (Onyeizugbo, 2003). For instance, within the Yoruba tradition (a sub-set within the southwest of Nigeria); everything of a lady’s private possessions are believed to robotically belong to her husband.

That is in live performance with the proverbial saying that, “The proprietor of the slave robotically owns the slave’s properties.” In different phrases, the lady is definitely seen because the husband’s “property;” therefore, she is just not supposed to say herself. Additionally, in Northern Ghana and Ashanti, the male is just not culturally obliged to prepare dinner or wash garments (laundry) as that is seen as a lady’s home job. Therefore, ladies are to serve their males (husbands) and shouldn't be seen to say themselves. This gender function stereotyping has been proven to affect assertiveness. Adejumo (1981) and Hersen et al. (1995) all reported males to be extra assertive than ladies. Nonetheless, different research have contradicted these findings. Chandler et al. (1978) for instance discovered that ladies had been considerably extra assertive than males in some particular conditions.

Their examine discovered that ladies (school college students) had been extra keen to be socially “confrontative,” that's, extra keen to say themselves and likewise communicate up for themselves boldly with none worry of intimidation or prejudice in aggressive conditions. Equally, a number of different research point out that sex-related situational components might affect assertive conduct. It's reported that females rated assertive stimulus fashions as extra assertive, aggressive, and masculine than did male topics (Delamater and Mcnarama, 1986). As well as, Karagozoglu et al. (2008) in a examine to research the affect of girls’s greater training on shallowness and assertiveness amongst females in a Turkish college, discovered that feminine college students have as excessive ranges of shallowness and assertiveness as do their male counterparts.

The upper ranges of girls’s shallowness and assertiveness could possibly be associated to the truth that receiving a college training will increase their self-confidence and perception in regards to the equality between women and men (Karagozoglu et al., 2008). It's, nevertheless, fascinating to notice that Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) and Applebaum (1976) have discovered that there is no such thing as a constant tendency for one gender to be extra assertive than the opposite. Assertiveness can also be strongly related to masculinity and with youthful cohorts (Ryan, Anas & Friedman, 2006). Older individuals are much less assertive than youthful friends, as a result of both they've by no means exhibited assertion, or they could have misplaced the boldness to make use of assertive expertise (Furnham & Pendleton, 1983).

Assertiveness and Psychological Traits

Prior analysis has discovered that assertiveness is related to excessive shallowness and that it's more likely to function a buffer towards stress, anxiousness, and worry of disapproval (Upton et al., 2012). This appears to recommend that ladies with excessive ranges of assertion are typically psychologically motivated and therefore they can dwell with out worry of isolation. Alternatively, ladies with low ranges of assertion might also expertise melancholy and exhibit expansive length of depressive episodes (Pettit & Joiner, 2006). Earlier research have examined hyperlinks between assertiveness, melancholy, and social assist amongst older grownup teams. Amongst 69 community-dwelling older adults, Hersen et al. (1995) discovered that those that are much less assertive and have much less social assist are at elevated threat for melancholy. Furthermore, amongst 100 visually impaired older adults, Hersen et al. (1995) reported that greater ranges of social assist and assertiveness had been related to decrease ranges of melancholy.

Additionally, assertiveness was usually discovered to be inversely associated to melancholy as was famous over a two 12 months interval amongst initially non-depressed sufferers with panic dysfunction, even after controlling for preliminary melancholy (Rosenbaum et al., 1994). As well as, assertiveness has been discovered to be inversely associated to anxiousness (Lefevre & West, 1981; Nezu et al., 1986; Orenstein et al., 1975), worry of disapproval (Lefevre & West, 1981), psychosomatic complaints (Nezu et al., 1986), interpersonal anxiousness, and neuroticism (Orenstein et al., 1975) and has been discovered to be positively associated to shallowness (Lefevre & West, 1981). Moreover, Brecklin (2004) in a examine to point out the connection between assertiveness and psychological traits amongst ladies discovered that ladies with a number of victimization experiences present much less assertiveness and extra psychological misery of their social interactions, in addition to had been extra more likely to take part in assertiveness coaching applications.

Assertiveness and Communication

Poyrazli et al. (2001) discovered that there's a excessive correlation between assertiveness and tutorial efficiency in addition to adjustment issues. They reported that college students with greater ranges of assertion had been seen to be extra self-efficacious academically; this implies that college students who're extra assertive most likely provoke extra tutorial interactions or ask for educational assist and due to this fact have greater tutorial self-efficacy (Poyrazli et al. (2001). Assertion can also be outlined as a behavioral character that determines a person’s capacity to have interaction in competent communication (Richmond and McCroskey, 1985). Due to this fact, evaluation of assertiveness entails conditions of communication and conversational skills (Richmond and McCroskey, 1985). Assertive conduct is conveyed via interactions between verbal and nonverbal strands of communication (Mcfall et al., 1982). The nonverbal a part of communication has been outlined on the idea of instinct by many psychologists (for instance, Serber, 1972; Albert and Emmons, 1978; Wolpe and Lazarus, 1966). Mcfall et al. (1982) states that the nonverbal modes of exhibiting assertion embody eye contact, facial features, physique expression, gestures, and fluency of speech in addition to loudness of voice.

I contend that this nonverbal type of communication, therefore exhibiting assertion, is culturally relative. In most conventional Ghanaian societies, direct eye contact with an grownup is culturally unacceptable and oppositional. Thus, assertion for my part is outlined by the cultural context. That is illustrated by Singhal and Nagao (1993) in a comparability examine to find out assertion variations amongst cultures within the gentle of communication. It was discovered that the common scores for American college students on their perceptions of assertiveness as a communication competence had been greater than the scores for Japanese college students (Singhal and Nagao, 1993). Singhal and Nagao (1993) defined additional that Japanese college students understand it to be or deem it inappropriate to query a professor in the event that they disagreed with a professor’s assertion (no less than extra so than American college students).

Thus, the Japanese communication fashion is geared in direction of sustaining group concord (Singhal and Nagao, 1993), which maybe implies that Japanese communication fashion additionally avoids confrontation to point out assertion. As well as, speaking assertion via fluency of speech could also be misguided due to distinction of languages amongst individuals. Therefore, “intuitive judgment” as figuring out part of assertion might not apply in several contexts (Mcfall et al., 1982). Auslander et al. (2007) in a analysis on perceptions of sexual assertiveness amongst younger women indicated that sexual assertiveness is said to prior sexual experiences. Auslander et al. (2007) said that women who had been sexually energetic longer, and have had extra sexual companions felt extra relaxed to provoke intercourse, however much less in a position to refuse intercourse and are unwilling to insist on prevention strategies or preventive strategies associated to being pregnant and sexually transmitted ailments (STDs).

Parenting kinds and Assertiveness

One other method wherein researchers have studied assertion on the a part of younger ladies is within the space of parenting kinds they obtain from their mother and father. For instance, Zahra, Khanem and AhmadiGatab (2011) in analysis involving highschool women discovered that the “self-assertiveness coaching program” was best amongst highschool women who expertise the “little management and an excessive amount of love” parenting fashion (p.1948). On this case, school females whose mother and father had been permissive, improved higher (initiated extra tutorial interactions) with assertiveness coaching applications than these college students whose mother and father had been authoritative and authoritarian (Zahra, Khanem and AhmadiGatab, 2011).

Parenting Types

Typically, a parenting fashion has been outlined because the emotional local weather wherein mother and father elevate their youngsters (Darling and Steinberg, 1993). A parenting fashion might also be defined as the way in which wherein mother and father talk with their youngsters, look after, assist, management, punish and monitor their youngsters (Slicker et al. (2005). Moreover, parenting kinds embody practices, attitudes, verbal and non-verbal expressions that characterize parent-child relationship (Slicker et al. (2005). Analysis has been performed on parenting kinds with early research inspecting a myriad of dimensions together with: responsiveness/unresponsiveness (Baldwin, 1948), democratic/autocratic (Baldwin, 1948), dominance/submission (Baumrind, 1967) management/non management (Baumrind, 1971), acceptance/rejection (Baumrind, 1978), and restrictiveness/permissiveness (Baumrind, 1991). Baumrind (1971, 1978, and 1991) via a number of research recognized three major parental typologies: authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Authoritative parenting is one wherein the father or mother is just not overbearing whereas offering steering and laws (McWayne et al., 2008).

Authoritarian parenting fashion is one wherein the father or mother is restrictive and kids are anticipated to do what precisely they're advised (McWayne et al., 2008). Permissive parenting; right here youngsters do by any means they want with restricted steering, management and restrictions as a result of mother and father keep away from confrontations with their youngsters (McWayne et al., 2008). Maccoby and Martin (1983) in a examine recognized the fourth sort of parenting fashion referred to as detached or uninvolved parenting; the father or mother is negligent of kids’s wants whereas addressing different pursuits. On this case, mother and father commit their time to the pursuit of careers or training and different obligatory fulfillments. Proof that authoritative parenting fashion is fascinating for kids has been proven in quite a few research. For instance, Kids who expertise authoritative parenting have been seen to be self-reliant, socially accountable and have excessive to reasonable shallowness (Dwairy et al., 2006; Lamborn, Dornbusch &Darling 1992; Steinberg, Mounts, Lamborn & Dornbusch, 1991).

Moreover, different researchers have additionally proposed authoritative parenting as central to the success of intimate relationships both heterogeneous or homogenous. In a analysis involving 723 Arab college students, college students who expertise authoritative parenting fashion had been reported to attain excessive on intimate friendship scale than those that expertise permissive parenting fashion and authoritarian parenting kinds (Sharabany et al., 2008). As well as, Lamborn, Dornbusch &Darling (1992) states that ladies’s want to perform greater training is related to an authoritative parenting fashion. That's, youngsters of authoritative mother and father rating higher on tutorial intelligence scale, therefore, greater tutorial efficiency. Nonetheless, in a examine to evaluate the extent of creativity and perfectionism amongst school college students, Miller et al. (2012) discovered that college students who skilled permissive parenting kinds are extra artistic, whereas those that skilled authoritarian parenting fashion are perfectionist.

Due to this fact, permissive parenting fashion promotes artistic skills amongst youngsters. As well as, ranges of punishment in parenting kinds have been proven to affect youngsters’s tutorial outcomes. As an example, extreme correctional disciplines and parental management built-in in authoritative and authoritarian parenting kinds correspond to low tutorial efficiency in youngsters (Fletcher et al. 2008). Nonetheless, youngsters who expertise permissive parenting kinds had been reported to contain in additional tutorial interactions. Authoritarian parenting kinds and permissive parenting kinds are thought-about to be on the excessive ends of the continuum whereas authoritative parenting fashion is seen halfway on the continuum of parenting (Dwairy et al., 2006). Uninvolved or detached parenting fashion is probably the most undesirable of all of the parenting sorts as a result of it leads to juvenile delinquencies and conduct problems (McWayne et al., 2008).

Parental demandingness and Parental responsiveness

In one other method, some researchers have additionally categorized parenting kinds into parental dimensions: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness (Alegre, 2010). Alegre, (2010) defines Parental responsiveness as practices of heat, assist, and nurturance with which folks deliver up or rear their youngsters. Parental responsiveness is also referred to as Optimistic parenting (Finzi-Dottan, Bilu and Golubchik, 2011). Parental responsiveness or Optimistic parenting has acquired a lot consideration from academia as a result of it has been discovered to lead to optimistic outcomes of kids similar to greater shallowness and higher psychological adjustment (Alegre, 2010). Alternatively, Parental demandingness integrates advanced attributes of parental practices as a result of its outcomes on youngsters embody optimistic and damaging dimensions (Alegre, 2010). Parental demandingness is outlined as parental practices which contain expectations and calls for from mother and father for “mature and accountable behaviour” on the a part of their youngsters (p.56). The extent of expectations and calls for by mother and father from their youngsters can vary from no expectations and no management to excessive calls for (Alegre, 2010).

Therefore, damaging parenting demandingness is characterised by parental practices similar to extreme management and frequent disciplining (Alegre, 2010). These practices have been discovered to yield outcomes similar to subtle ego id and cognitive anxiousness (Alegre, 2010). For instance, Finzi-Dottan, Bilu and Golubchik (2008) in a analysis amongst adolescent immigrants within the Former Soviet Union to find out parental affect on ego id amongst adolescents, discovered that lack of optimistic parenting leads to aggression, subtle ego id and behavioral issues (delinquencies).

Due to this fact, optimistic parenting leads to shallowness and promotes a way of guilt and duty amongst youngsters (Finzi-Dottan Bilu and Golubchik, 2008). Moreover, Alegre (2010) in a evaluate literature, discovered that parental responsiveness and parental optimistic demandingness enhances emotional intelligence in youngsters as in comparison with parental observe of damaging demandingness. Additionally, Slicker et al. (2005) in a examine involving 660 first 12 months college college students, discovered that parental responsiveness scored greater with optimistic life expertise improvement than parental demandingness. Thus, college students whose mother and father built-in responsive parental practices have higher interpersonal communication, are accountable for their well being and contain themselves in choice making.

Parenting Types, Gender and Tradition

All of the aforementioned parental practices prevail within the households of the Ghanaian society, however practices of an authoritarian parenting fashion is most prevailent. Nonetheless, Dwairy et al. (2006) observe that western societies normally undertake an authoritative parenting fashion. Additionally, modern research within the space of parenting have proven that women require completely different parenting kinds from that of boys. That's, parenting fashion is gendered and tradition particular (Dwairy et al., 2006; Dwairy, 2004). Dwairy et al. (2006) administered a Parental Authority Questionnaire to 2, 893 Arab adolescents, and it was discovered that boys normally expertise authoritarian parenting fashion whereas women expertise authoritative parenting, however first-borns normally expertise permissive parenting kinds. Kincaid et al. (2012) in a evaluate examine on 24 earlier analysis findings confirmed that parental restriction (as in authoritarian parenting) is unfavorable for adolescent women however favorable for boys close to sexual deviant conduct. Kincaid et al. (2012) outline sexual deviant conduct because the engagement in “unprotected intercourse with a number of companions.”

Thus, much less parental monitoring with affection or fondness protects women from sexual threat/deviant conduct as, in permissive parenting fashion. This suggests that women who've much less parental monitoring assert (are in a position to specific explicitly their sexual rights and disengage from unsafe sexual practices) themselves with problems with sexuality (Kincaid et al., 2012). A analysis performed amongst 431 Arab college students discovered that an authoritative parenting fashion for women may lower outcomes of phobia, damaging attitudes in direction of mother and father, and anxiousness problems (Dwairy, 2004). Dwairy (2004) reported permissive parenting fashion was proven to lead to outcomes similar to damaging attitudes to oldsters or behavioral issues and conduct problems amongst female and male adolescents (Dwairy, 2004). Curiously, amongst Ghanaian households, women normally expertise extra parental monitoring than boys. The favored stance is that whereas boys can defend themselves in unfamiliar conditions (bodily or sexual harassment), women can't defend themselves.

Therefore, in Ghanaian conventional houses, women normally obtain extra restrictive parenting kinds (as in authoritarian and authoritative parenting kinds), whereas boys obtain permissive parenting fashion. This, due to this fact, confers on women to take duty to keep away from social harassment. Different researchers have additionally checked out how a parenting fashion may be influenced by social networks (similar to members of the prolonged household, lecturers and many others.) and social standing of fogeys. As an example, McWayne et al. (2008) examined parenting kinds within the context of ethnically and economically various teams in addition to the affect of different social networks on youngsters. That's, McWayne et al. (2008) in a comparative evaluate examine of two impartial researches, involving 184 youngsters and their households on one hand, then again is a inhabitants dimension of 210 youngsters and their households. It was aimed to look at the affect of conventional parenting kinds on youngsters’s social and emotional expertise amongst low-income African American households.

McWayne et al. (2008) discovered that there is no such thing as a constant relationship between a parenting fashion and kids’s social and emotional outcomes amongst these teams. Reasonably, youngsters’s emotional and social outcomes had been influenced by exterior networks similar to lecturers and associates in school (McWayne et al., 2008). It's value noting that, that is extra the case within the African context, particularly in Ghana; parenting is just not just for organic mother and father, but additionally, requires the involvement of members of the prolonged household. On this case, affect of different prolonged networks on youngsters’s outcomes must be included in analysis (slaughter-Defoe, 1995). Dwairy et al. (2006) present in a examine involving Arab college students that folks’ financial standing, degree of training, and urbanisation of fogeys don't have any affect on a parenting kinds. Typically, it appears the nurturing of assertiveness within the space of a parenting fashion has not often been checked out by researchers.

Additionally, the above literature seems to be exterior the context of Africa. That is emphasised by McWayne et al. (2008) that previous works on parenting kinds have been primarily based on the practices of middle-class white households. Additionally, as posited earlier, parenting fashion is necessary within the adolescence of kids so far as fascinating outcomes are involved. This, due to this fact, factors to the truth that assertion is fascinating on the a part of ladies to reinforce their social interplay. Therefore, this attracts consideration for additional research on assertiveness of girls within the gentle of parenting kinds. Reasonably than assume universality, the supposed analysis will embody various financial and ethnic teams to (re)look at their affect on parenting kinds. It is usually necessary so as to add that the continent of Africa, particularly Ghana, could possibly be used for this examine as a result of it proposes a discipline for economically and ethnically various teams, which is able to present a wealthy supply of knowledge for this examine.


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