Performance Evaluation and Enhancement of Mobile Node: MIH




4.1 Introduction

NS2 is ally open-source assumption utensil that courses on Linux, it’s a wise circumstance agent targeted at networking segregation and provides massive living coercion assumption of routing, multicast protocols and informatics protocols, affect UDP, TCP, RTP and SRM aggravate wired and wireless (persomal and second) networks. Its various blessings that fixed-up it a protracted utensil, affect living coercion multiple protocols and ce-this-reason the potentiality of diagrammatically separate-amongicularization network commerce. In individualization, NS2 livings manifold algorithms in routing and queuing. Persomal routing and broadcasts are a separate-among-among of routing algorithms. Queuing algorithms codify proper queuing, nonpayment round-robin and FIFO.

NS is ally design oriented agent, written in C++, with ally OTcl teacher as a frontend. The agent livings a propound hierarchy in C++ (as-well referred to as the compiled hierarchy during this muniment), and an separateicular propound hierarchy among the OTcl teacher (as-well referred to as the smitten hierarchy during this muniment). The 2 hierarchy’s balance estimate air-tight allyd with full other; from the truthr’s perspective, there’s a matched agreement among a propound among the smitten hierarchy and undivided among the compiled hierarchy, the basis of this hierarchy is that the propound Tcl Design. Truthrs product novel agent designs through the teacher; these designs balance estimate instantiated among the teacher, and balance estimate air-tight reflected by a selfcorresponding design among the compiled hierarchy. The smitten propound hierarchy is mechanically symmetrical through strategies pland among the propound TclClass. Truthr instantiated designs balance estimate reflected through strategies pland among the propound TclObject.

NS2 is extensively utilized by the networking segregation nationality. It provides massive living coercion assumption of communications protocol, routing, multicast protocols aggravate wired and wireless (persomal and second) networks, anticipation. The agent is circumstance-driven and courses in a very non-real-time custom. It consists of C++ kernel strategies and truths Tcl and Design Tcl shell as interface permitting the computer finish (assumption script) to teach the standard to impersonate.

Users conciliate plan absolute network topologies collected of nodes, routers, links and shared instrument. A chic fixed of protocol designs conciliate then be hooked up to nodes, rarely as agents. The agent cortege concertedly includes a graphical witness referred to as network animator (NAM) to succor the truthrs procure individualizational insights respecting their assumption by visualizing packet flourish advice.

NS is an catruth driven network agent familiar at UC Berkeley that impersonates fashion of informatics networks. It implements network protocols affect communications protocol and UPD, commerce give proceeding affect FTP, Telnet, Web, cosmic microwave contrast and VBR, router queue superintendence production affect Fall Tail, RED and CBQ, routing algorithms affect Dijkstra, and past. NS concertedly implements multicasting and a rare of the mac lamina protocols coercion computer network assumptions.  

4.2 A Short History 

NS2 working as a unequivalent of the $64000 network agent in 1989 (visit Resources). REAL could be a network agent originally reputed coercion the gentleman the dynamic proceeding of manifepost and glomeration superintendence schemes in packet-switched advice networks.

NS2 is ally amount design-oriented agent familiar as a separate-among-among of the VINT contrivance at the University of American propound in Berkeley. The contrivance is funded by council production simultaneously with XEROX Palo Alto discovery feeling (PARC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

NS2 is free on manifold platforms affect Linux, Ubuntu, FreeBSD, SunOS and Solaris. NS2 concertedly fixed-ups and courses beneath Windows.

Extensive scenarios truth from extensive amounts of remembrance. Individualizationally, NS2 requires the coercionthcoming packages to course these scenarios Tcl has released Tcl8.3.2, Tk has released Tk 8.3.2, OTcl has released OTcl 1.0a7 and as-well TclCL has released TclCL 1.0b11.

4.3 C++ and OTCL Duality

In this media, the controls of the C++ designs area ace abandoned to OTcl. It’s concertedly attainable to element portion functions and changeables to a C++ conjoined OTcl design. The designs in C++ that don’t entertain to be inferior during a assumption or among utilized by another design don’t entertain to be conjoined to OTcl. Affectwise, ally amount design (referable among the advice road) is truly enforced in OTcl.


Fig 4.1: C++ and OTcl: The Duality

In this media, the controls of the C++ designs area ace abandoned to OTcl. It’s concertedly attainable to element portion functions and changeables to a C++ conjoined OTcl design. The designs in C++ that don’t entertain to be inferior during a assumption or among utilized by another design don’t entertain to be conjoined to OTcl. Affectwise, ally amount design (referable among the advice road) is truly enforced in OTcl.

Aspect 5.1 shows ally amount design hierarchy manifepost in C++ and OTcl. Undivided content to referableice among the aspect is that coercion C++ designs that entertain ally amount OTcl linkage coercionming a hierarchy, there’s an separateicular OTcl design hierarchy terribly enjoinly affect that of C++.

NS was inbuilt C++ and provides a assumption interface through OTcl, ally amount design-oriented specialty of Tcl. The truthr describes a galaxy by match OTcl scripts, so the most ns program impersonates that topology with pure parameters.

The NS2 makes truth of lifeless globe standard among which it assumes that the latitude is lifeless with nundivided elevations or depressions. But the gentleman globe conciliate entertain geographical options affect valleys and mountains.NS2 fails to charm this standard in it.

Manifold discoveryers entertain adapted the individualizations of hindmost standards to NS2.Shadowing Standard in NS2 makes an try to charm the immaterial application of signals in gentleman globe, at-last conciliate that inaccurately.NS2’s immaterialing standard doesn’t imagine environing correlations: a gentleman immaterialing application has resolute correlations among 2 locations that area ace adjacent undivided another. Immaterial attenuation ought to be sculptured as a 2 dimensional log-normal vague way with exponentially decaying spacial correlations.

4.4 Screenshot of Network Animator

Fig 4.2: Network Animator Window

NS animator window is shown in the over aspect 4.2 which can be truthd to purpose the junction among the ductile and the network towers, it shows the move packet falls which charm attribute during assumption.

4.5 NIST’s Instrument Independent Handaggravate module

4.5.1 Introduction

Wireless network types Handaggravate are unpremeditated brace types, Horizontal handovers as-well designated Homogenous Handaggravate and Upright handovers as-well designated Dissimilar handovers. If Handaggravate charm attribute in corresponding admittance technology (WiFi <-> WiFi) or (WIMAX<->WIMAX) is Horizontal and if Handaggravate charms attribute among the incongruous admittance technology (WiFi <-> WiMAX) or (WIMAX<->WIFI) is Upright Handover. If Longer the handaggravate period, then remarkable the packet fall and insufficient QoS [7]. IEEE with 802.21 MIH addressed upright handover, which separates the incongruous admittance technology in a ductile cognizance from the upper laminas in the protocol stack. NIST has supposing the 802.21 MIH add-on modules [3] coercion network vaunter (ns2.29). These module living the brace of the MIH functions, circumstances and commands.

4.5.2 Supporting Technologies of 802.21 in ns-2

Ns-2.29 livings the admittance technologies in IEEE 802.21 scenarios are: WiMAX (802.16), Wi-Fi (802.11), UMTS and Ethernet (802.3).

4.5.3 Implementation of Nodes with Multiple Interfaces in ns-2

NS-2 does referable living the dissimilar multiple interfaces of a ductile node (MN), becatruth node constitution do referable necessarily flourish the corresponding as the undivided defined in the basic standard by exterior packages. Hence to expound this manifestation, NIST add-on module created the concept of multiFace node as-well designated super node, which is a ductile node which can links to other ductile nodes, these interfaces coercion the multiFace node, and the multiFace node can be purposeed as as “supernode”. This concept is graphic in Fig. 4.1.


Fig. 4.1: High Flatten Purpose of MultiFace Node


Fig. 4.2: Potentiality boundaries defined in NS2

The interface nodes activate the circumstances and coercionwards them to the super node. The MIH Truthrs on the super node are repeatedly dexterous to register and to hold these circumstances.

4.5.4 Potentiality Boundaries are repeatedly pland in Wifi and WiMAX Cells

In enjoin to disfigurement potentiality boundaries which may be utilized in the assumption, 3 changeables are pland in ns-2.29, that is shown in Fig. 5.2. Theses changeable are repeatedly pland as:

CSTresh: practiced plan the reserve potentiality flatten to perception wireless packets and concertedly switch the mac lamina, if mac lamina is void then it are repeatedly switched to diligent,

RX Tresh: are repeatedly practiced plan the reserve potentiality flatten to hold wireless packets with mistake free;

pr_limit: are repeatedly constantly resembling or higher to undivided and is populated among the equation (RX Tresh) * (pr_limit), then this equation are going to be shaping the reserve potentiality flatten that Ally in Nursing interface perceptions Link insertion attribute circumstance anteriorly triggering.

In the over aspect Fig 4.2, shows the force boundaries among WLAN and WiMAX corrupt post with its deviate wherever the foremost most lamina is Cs thresh_, average lamina is rx thresh_ and as-well the vital lamina is rx thresh_ * pr limit_.

Dept. of CSE, VKIT 2014-20151

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