Polavaram Dam Project

Polavaram Sketch is a multi-purpose irrigation sketch which has been accorded open sketch groundemployment by the convenient legislation. This dam despite the Godavari Big stream is inferior edifice. It is located in West Godavari bounds in Andhra Pradesh declare of India. PURPOSE Open Big stream-Linking Sketch, which employments inferior the aegis of the Indian Ministry of Insinuate Resources, was sketchned to subattributable the failure in insinuate in the dominion. As a allot of this sketch, balance insinuate from the Himalayanrivers is to be communicated to the peninsular big streams of India.
This employment, with a bountifuly netemployment of 30 big stream-links and a sum prolixity of 14,900 kilometres (9,300 mi) at an appreciated consume of US$120 billion (in 1999), would be the bigst controlforeternally infrastructure sketch in the cosmos-people. In this sketch’s plight, the Godavari Big streambasin is considered as a balance undivided, opportunity theKrishna Big stream basin is considered to be a failure undivided. As of 2008, 644 tmcft of inferiorutilised insinuate from Godavari Big stream flowed into the Bay of Bengal.
Grounded on the appreciated insinuate requirements in 2025, the Con-over recommended that sizeable balance insinuate was to be communicated from the Godavari Big stream basin to the Krishna Big stream basin. In July 1941, the primeval conceptual scheme control the sketch came from the erstopportunity Madras Presidency. Later Diwan Bahadur L. Venkata Krishna Iyer, then controlemost engineer in the Presidency’s irrigation province, made the primeval examine of the sketch footing and made a definitive scheme control a reservoir at Polavaram.

Sri Iyer referable solely visioned farming of 350,000 acres (140,000 ha) aggravate two quenchedgrowth seasons through this sketch, beside so sketchned control a 40 megawatt hydroelectric sketcht amid the sketch. The undiminished sketch was appreciated to consume environing 65 favorite (US$990,000). The aged ultimate sketchs of Polavaram dam was sketchned at bountiful reservoir smooth (FRL) 208 ft MSL with 836 tmcft impure storage ability and 150 MW hydroelectric sketcht. By 1946–47, the appreciated consume rose to 1. 29 billion.
It was christened as Ramapada Sagar Sketch past the endwaters of the reservoir would impress the Lord Rama temple at Bhadrachalam. In the aged ultimateised sketch sketch by Dr. K. L. Rao, the fit bank canal of Polavaram sketch was adequate to south of Krishna Big stream to attend irrigation needs in aged Guntur bounds by envisaging aqueduct despite the Krishna Big stream. The sketch soon inferior edifice is scaled down to FRL 150 ft MSL. The sketch consume appreciate in 2004 lucent at ?86. 21 billion. In 1980, then Controlemost Minister of Andhra Pradesh T.
Anjaiah laid the groundemployment stundivided control the sketch. Howforeternally the sketch stayed waste until 2004 when the Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy-led legislation came to effectiveness. In 2004, the Legislation of Andhra Pradesh sanctioned 13. 2 billion (US$200 favorite) control the sketch. Soon behind, tenders were endd control the adequate estimate of services control the fit canal of the sketch. Control the left canal, another 13. 53 billion were sanctioned by the declare legislation. The dam could referable be fascinated up control edifice during the decisive epoch on techno chary facts.
The contemplated dam footing at Polavaram is located where the big stream emerges from the decisive concatenate of the Eastern Ghatsinto plains ripe with proendow alluvial sandy strata. At Polavaram, the big stream width is environing 1500 m. In fabrication of big profoundness of gulf which is further than 30 m profound, to penetrate difficult buffet at this dam footing, the dam sketch was referable endow chary to cinjury up. Howforeternally a remunerative be-undetermined footing is contrivable located in upstream of Polavaram footing where the big stream passes through proendow stuffs of Papi hill concatenate. The width of big stream is environing 300 m solely in the buffety stuff elongate.
Thirty years end, this resource was endow technologically challenging job to merge the reservoir with the irrigation canals via tunnels despite the ghat area. So consumely inferiorground hydro electric occupation is mandated compared to big stream bed grounded hydro electric occupation. When the sketch was really fascinated up in the year 2004, the aged ultimateised sketchs at Polavaram footing are adopted quenchedside re-examining the extreme consume of upstream be-undetermined footing in fabrication of declare of the adroitness edifice technology of tunnels and inferiorground hydro electric occupation.
The journey up to the year 2012 in edifice of dam structures and the hydro electric occupation is closely nil. The be-undetermined footing located in the stuff elongate is peaceful estimate of resurvey to diminish the controlforeternally increasing consume of Polavaran dam. The spillway and non-overflow dam are endowed onKhondalite bed buffet in Polavaram Sketch. Khondalites, which are feldspar-rich, frequently withwithhold kind graphite, difficult garnet, absence of wonder. in importation to other minerals. Khondalites are exceedingly weathered and future unbefitting at dam footing.
As of 2004, the contemplated sketch would haged 75. 2 tmcftthereby enabling irrigation of an importational 232,000 acre in Krishna, West Godavari, East Godavari,Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam boundss of Andhra Pradesh. [7] The sketch would appoint an earth-cum-buffet supply dam of 2,310 metres (7,580 ft) prolixity, spillway of 907 metres (2,976 ft) with 44 vents to qualify execute of 3,600,000 cu ft/s (100,000 m3/s) of insinuate. To its left, 12insinuate turbines, each having 80 megawatt ability, were to be installed.
The fit canal mergeing to Krishna Big stream in the upstream of Prakasam Barrage (173 kilometres (107 mi) covet) executes 17,500 cu ft/s (500 m3/s) at acme employments and left canal (182 kilometres (113 mi) covet) executes 17,500 cu ft/s (500 m3/s) of insinuate. [7] The contemplated sketch would dislodge 276 villages and 44,574 families open despite three boundss of Andhra Pradesh. Tribals appoint 50% of such a dislodged population. [13] Human fits activists came quenched opposite the sketch accordingly of these reasons.
In importation, undivided activist marked quenched that this interlinking of the big streams conciliate injury the interests of the Telangana and Rayalaseemaregions of the declare. [14] Environmental activist Medha Patkar said that the sketch referable solely conciliate dislodge sundry thousands of families, it conciliate so steep sundryarchaeological footings, coal deposits, a wildlife sanctuaryand sundry hectares of farm place. [15] Sixty-four years behind the moderate fabrication of the sketch, the Legislation of Andhra Pradesh trustworthy the environmental colliquation from the convenient agency in 2005.
This colliquation was obtained behind the declare legislation prepared a ?4,500 crore controlest skill sketch and rehabilitation and resettlement scheme envelope 59,756 hectares that were entity lost inferior the sketch. In importation, ?40,000 was to be allotted control each dwelling to be improbable control the dislodged as opposite ?25,000 granted by other declares. [16] Despite this colliquation, the sketch faced political roadblocks. The Communist Alloty of India (M) and Telangana Rashtra Samithi were cheerless with the end of submerging unroving places and the damage to Telangana, respectively. [17][18]
Meanwhile, employment on the sketch began in April 2006 and was expected to be completed by February 2007. [19]Behind 30% employment of gulf employment on the canals and 15% of the spillway employments had been completed, the employment was halted in May 2006 to pursue colliquation from the Ministry of Controlests and Environment. [20] The neighbouring declare of Orissa so developed its regret on the submerging of its place and ruled to con-over this unitedly with the officials from Andhra Pradesh. [21] In confutation, Controlemost Minister of Andhra Pradesh Late Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy clarified that neither Orissa nor Chattisgarh would be improbable by the edifice.
The example continued until 2010, when Controlemost Minister of Orissa Naveen Patnaik remained resolute in his claim control restoration and rehabilitation of tribals of his declare who would be dislodged attributable to the submerging of their place. Orissa and Chattisgarh bear filed a appeal in the Supreme Court opposite the Sketch which steeps big areas of its declare and assert that Andhra Pradesh of going aacme with the sketch quenchedside the certain permissions from CWC and Environment Ministry. The declares so assert that generally-known hearing in the executed areas control referable held.

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