Pomi

Principles of Mass (International) Coercion Operations of Beneathstanding JUNE 1979 Published by RICS Business Employments Limited, a alcoincidently holded corroborative of The Royal Institution of Chartered Contemplateors, beneath the RICS Bignesss stereotype, Contemplateor Court Westwood Business Park Coventry, CV4 8JE UK No province coercion missing occasioned to any idiosyncratic acting or refraining from enjoyment as a lastder of any esthetic comprised in this divulgation can be present by the authors, publisher or The Royal Institution of Chartered Contemplateors.
The views explicit and the conclusions drawn in this bigness are those of the authors. ISBN 0 85406 108 8 Earliest Edition 1979 Reprinted 1988, 1991, 1994, 2001, 2002 and 2004 © RICS 1988. Copyright in adequate or segreimportation of this divulgation rests with the RICS, and obviate by antecedent submit of the RICS, no segreimportation or segregates of this divulgation shadequate be reproduced in any coercionm or by any instrument electronic, unimpassioned, photocopying, recording or inadequately, now knhlong-standing or to be bequeathed. Printed by Q3 Print, Loughborough
Foreword The authentication of bills of quantities is a well-established instrument of enabling the financial manage and matter of edifice operations. The solution to the victory of the authentication of bills of quantities is a obvious beneathstanding by adequate segregateies to the abbreviate of what is comprised, or rejectd, in the mass. It is this that gives mollify to the capability coercion obviously limitd flag courses of mass. Since these tenets of mass were earliest issued in 1979, multifarious countries possess open their hlong-standing aggravate minute flag courses.

A modern contemplate of its interpolitical society carried quenched coercion the RICS Beneathstanding Faculty by the Edifice Require Appealableice Employment (BCIS) identified that 14 of the 32 responding countries had their hlong-standing course of mass. However, the Tenets of Mass (International) (POMI) were stationary being authenticationd in abquenched half of the countries and are stationary widely authenticationd on interpolitical abbreviates. There has been a tend in the UK and elsewhere to provoke loose from mass-based procurement, passing the province coercion measuring the edifice operation dhlong-standing the minister association to the abbreviateor or sub-contractor.
However, examination commissioned by the Beneathstanding Faculty showed that where bills of quantities were appealable supposing as segreimportation of the procurement way, 95% of abbreviateors would beneathtake their hlong-standing mass, with the superiority of this carried quenched in abridge with the present Flag Course of Mass (SMM). There is no vacillate that the proliferation of procurement performances obtain endure. However, in predicament in which there is a limit of artifice assurance antecedently the abbreviateor is appointed, mass-based procurement obtain stationary be alienate.
Furthermore, where artifice decisions are being passed dhlong-standing the minister association, mass should be beneathsmitten at the resemblingize at which the artifice is carried quenched, in dispose to reprovoke the insufficiency coercion duplication. It is in the interests of the perseverance as a aggregate, including its clients, that mass is carried quenched conformably. There is hence a endured insufficiency coercion flag courses of mass and, by coil, a endured insufficiency coercion mass skills. These tenets demand a minute mention and frebuke drawings to be supposing.
RICS recognises that predicament differ from dominion to dominion, and from abbreviate to abbreviate, and that the tenets hence insufficiency to be flexile in dispose to adjudicate negativeions in performance and techniques. Any comments on the tenets should be sent to the RICS Beneathstanding Faculty, at 12 Great George Street, Parliament Square, London, SW1P 3AD. The tenets are to-boot benefit-serviceable in French, German and Arabic. RICS is merry to the initiatory authors: Michael Rainbird, Alan Charter, James Diebel, Derek Lawrence and Michael Pagulatos. Simon Cash Chairman RICS Beneathstanding Faculty December 2003 Contents
SECTION GP – GENERAL PRINCIPLES GP1 Tenets of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP2 Bills of quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GP3 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP4 Sunders to be abundantly embracing GP5 Cognomen of sunders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2 GP6 Operation to be performed by a properist nominated by the mistress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GP7 Consequence, esthetics or employments to be supposing by a dealer or trafficker nominated by the mistress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GP8 Operation to be performed by a legislation or exoteric pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GP9 Dayworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/3 GPI0 Contingencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SECTION A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS A1 Provisions of abbreviate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A2 Mention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A3 Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A4 Abbreviateor’s professional classifyments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A5 Beneathstandingal determinedtle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A6 Mistress’s facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A7 Abbreviateor’s facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A8 Imbeaming operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A9 Abundant sunders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SECTION B – SITE WORK B1 Extreme scrutiny generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 B2 Criterion indentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 B3 Boreholes (including pumping experiment wells) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 B4 Extreme provision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 B5 Demolitions and alterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B6 Shoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B7 Beneathpinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B8 Earthworks generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B9 Gulf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 B10 Dredging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B11 Dispensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 B12 Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B13 Piling generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B14 Driven piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B15 Bored piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B16 Shuffle piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B17 Performance artificeed piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 B18 Experimenting piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B19 Beneathcause parchage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B20 Paving and surfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 B21 Fencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B22 Landscaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B23 Rebukeway operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B24 Tunnel gulf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 B25 Tunnel integuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B26 Tunnel stay and sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 SECTION C – CONCRETE WORK C1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C2 Poured compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C3 Auxiliaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C4 Shuttering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C5 Prebehavior compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C6 Prestressed compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C7 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10/11 SECTION D – MASONRY D1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 D2 Embankments and piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 D3 Sills, expectation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 04 Auxiliaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 D5 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SE:CTION E – METALWORK E1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 E2 Structural inspirationaloperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11/12 E3 Non structural inspirationaloperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SECTION F – WOODWORK F1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 F2 Structural timbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 F3 Bombardment and flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 F4 Causes and battens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 Frameoperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Accomplishings and fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12/13 Composlte sunders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Abundant sunders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Inspirationaloperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Ironmongery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 SECTION G – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION G1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 G2 Coverings and integuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 G3 Damp-proof courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 G4 Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SECTION H – DOORS AND WINDOWS H1 Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 H2 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 H3 Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 H4 Ironmongery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 H5 Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 H6 Patent glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 SECTION J – FINISHES J1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 J2 Backaxioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 J3 Accomplishings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 J4 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 J5 Suspended ceilings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 J6 Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 J7 Signwriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SECTION K – ACCESSORIES K1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 K2 Segregateitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 SECTION L – EQUIPMENT L1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 SECTION M – FURNISHINGS M1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 M2 Curtain vestige . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SECTION N – SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION N1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 N2 Enclosures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 N3 Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 SECTION P – CONVEYING SYSTEMS P1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 P2 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 P3 Operation concomitant to conveying systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 SECTION Q – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INSTALLATIONS Q1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Q2 Pipeoperation and gutteroperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Q3 Ductoperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q4 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q5 Automatic manages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q6 Connections to minister mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q7 Insulation, including integuments and protective coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Q8 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Q9 Operation concomitant to unimpassioned engineering installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 SECTION R – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INSTALLATIONS R1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R2 Main circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R3 Sub-main circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R4 Latest sub-circuits and helping installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R5 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 R6 Manage resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 R7 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R8 Connections to minister mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 R9 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 R10 Operation concomitant to electrical engineering installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 APPENDIX Amendments to tenets of mass …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 SECTION GP – GENERAL PRINCIPLES GP1 Tenets of mass GP1. 1 Tenets of mass These tenets of mass furnish a unidevise base coercion measuring bills of quantities coercion operations of beneathstanding. Aggravate minute appealableice than is demandd by this muniment may mass be ardent to limit the terse kind of operation or the predicament beneath which it is to be carried quenched. Amendments to these tenets of mass coercion authentication in a segregateicular district or adopted coercion operation appealable envisaged by this muniment shadequate be continuanceical; an sequel is supposing coercion such amendments to be recitative.
These tenets of mass may be applied resembling to the mass of contemplated operations and of adequated operations. Bills of quantities The objects of bills of quantities are: 1. To back in the complimentary provision of frails, by providing coercion mass of quantities on a unidevise base 2. To furnish a base coercion the financial manage of a scheme, in abridge with the provisions of abbreviate. Bills of quantities shadequate indicate and indicate the operations to be carried quenched; operation which canreferable be measured complimentaryly shadequate be indicated as approach or ardent in bills of approach quantities.
Provisions of abbreviate, drawings and mentions shadequate be supposing with the bills of quantities. The ateion epithets and classifications do appealable determined restrictions upon the coercionmat and unstudieder of bills of quantities. Mass Operation shadequate be measured enmesh as unwandering in aspect and each mass shadequate be smitten to the rectilinear 10 millimetres; this tecajole shadequate appealable engage to magnitude continuanceical in cognomens. Unclose inadequately continuanceical, no inference shadequate be made from sunders demandd to be measured by area coercion lackings of close than 1. 00 m2.
Minimum inferences of lackings shadequate appeal solely to lackings among the partys of measured areas; lackings which are at the partys of measured areas shadequate regularly be deducted, irrespective of bigness. These tenets of mass may be authenticationd with other aces of mass beside the segregateicular amendments shadequate be continuanceical. Appealablewithstanding these tenets of mass, a unconnected unimportant edifice or constituency may be enumerated. Sunders to be abundantly embracing Unclose inadequately continuanceical, adequate sunders shadequate be abundantly embracing of adequate that is essential to view the Sunders to be abundantly liabilities and obligations arising quenched of the abbreviate and shadequate conceive: 1.
Labour and adequate associated requires 2. Esthetics, consequence and adequate associated requires 3. Provision of determinedtle 4. Imbeaming operations 5. Community reckoning, aggravateheads and benefit-service. Cognomen of sunders Sunders which are demandd to be enumerated. or coercion which an slower is demandd, shadequate be abundantly indicated. Sunders which are to be measured by diffusiveness or profoundness shadequate recite the cross-sectional bigness and pattern, strap or collocates of straps or such other appealableice as may be alienate; coercion sunders of pipeoperation it shadequate be continuanceical whether the crossing is inside or apparent.
Items which are to be measured bv area shadequate recite the burliness or such other appealableice as may be alienate. Sunders which are to be measured by efficacy shadequate recite the esthetic burliness and ace efficacy if alienate (coercion copy, ductwork). GP1. 2 GP1. 3 GP2 Bills of quantities GP2. 1 GP2. 2 GP2. 3 GP2. 4 GP3 Mass GP3. 1 GP3. 2 GP3. 3 GP3. 4 GP3. 5 GP4 Sunders to be abundantly embracing GP4. 1 GP5 Cognomen of sunders GP5. 1 GP5. 2 GP5. 3 GP5. 4 1 GP5. 5 Appealablewithstanding these tenets of mass, proprietary sunders may be measured in a fashion alienate to the manufacturer’s tariff or customary performance.
The cognomen of sunders in bills of quantities may appeal to other muniments or drawings and any appealence to such appealableice shadequate be beneathstood to view any capability of these tenets of mass; alternatively, appealence may be made to published appealableice. Operation to be performed by a properist nominated by the mistress Unclose inadequately demandd by the provisions of abbreviate, operation which is demandd to be performed by a properist nominated by the mistress shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; such incorporate shadequate be scientific of abbreviateor’s benefit-employment and in each contingency an slower shadequate be ardent coercion the importation of benefit-service.
An slower shadequate be ardent in each contingency coercion backance by the abbreviateor, which shadequate conceive: 1. Authentication of abbreviateor’s professional classifyments 2. Authentication of beneathstandingal determinedtle 3. Authentication of abbreviateor’s facilities 4. Authentication of imbeaming operations 5. Quantity coercion properist’s unstudiedices and stores 6. Obviousing loose trash 7. Scaffolding demandd by the properist, giving segregateiculars 8. Unloading, distributing, hoisting and placing in aspect sunders of determinedtle, machinery or the affect, giving segregateiculars.
Goods, esthetics or employments to be supposing by a dealer or trafficker nominated by the mistress Unclose inadequately demandd by the provisions of abbreviate, consequence, esthetics or employments which are demandd to be supposing by a dealer or trafficker nominated by the mistress shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; such incorporate shadequate be scientific of abbreviateor’s benefit-employment and in each contingency an slower shadequate be ardent coercion the importation of benefit-service. Fixing consequence and esthetics shadequate be ardent in abridge with the apt provisions in these tenets of mass; fixing shadequate be beneathstood to conceive unloading, storing, distributing and hoisting the, consequence and esthetics.
Particulars shadequate be ardent of any capabilitys coercion the abbreviateor to classify coercion endowment or fixed any requires of conveying consequence or esthetics. Operation to be performed by a legislation or exoteric pattern Unclose inadequately demandd by the provisions of abbreviate, operation which may solely be carried quenched or by a legislation or exoteric pattern shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; such incorporate shadequate be scientific of abbreviateor’s benefit-employment and in each contingency an slower shadequate be ardent coercion the importation of benefit-service. An slower shadequate be ardent in each contingency coercion backance by the abbreviateor as indicated in claauthentication GP6. . Dayworks The require of labour in dayworks shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; alternatively, a catalogue of the opposed categories of labour may be ardent containing a hypothetical largeness of hours coercion each kind. The require of labour comprised in a incorporate or catalogue shadequate conceive remuneration, bonuses and adequate adequateowances hired to operatives quickly betrothed on dayworks (including those open unimpassioned determinedtle and ecstasy) in abridge with the alienate usurpation abridge or, where no such abridge exists, the developed fixedments made to the operation populace restless.
The require of esthetics in dayworks shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; alternatively, 3 catalogue may be ardent containing a hypothetical largeness of opposed esthetics. The require of esthetics comprised in a incorporate or catalogue shadequate be the enmesh invoiced worth, including endowment to extreme. The require of beneathstandingal determinedtle liable scientificly in dayworks shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; alternatively, a catalogue of the opposed categories of determinedtle may be ardent containing a hypothetical largeness of hours, or such other continuance of occasion as may be alienate, coercion each kind.
The require of beneathstandingal determinedtle comprised in a incorporate or catalogue shadequate conceive fuel, consumable stores, repairs, subsistence and insurance of determinedtle. An slower shadequate be ardent coercion the importation of community reckoning. aggravateheads and benefit-employment to each of the incorporates or catalogues of labour, esthetics or determinedtle. Cognomen of sunders (continued) GPS. 6 GP6 GP6. 1 Operation to be performed by a properist nominated by the mistress GP6. 2 GP7 GP7. 1 GP7. 2 Consequence, esthetics or employments to be supposing by a dealer or trafficker nominated by the mistress GP8 GP8. 1 Operation to be performed by a legislation or exoteric pattern GP8. 2 GP9 GP9. 1
Dayworks GP9. 2 GP9. 3 GP9. 4 GP9. 5 GP9. 6 GP9. 7 2 Dayworks (continued) GP9. 8 Community reckoning, aggravateheads and benefit-employment shadequate conceive: 1. Requires akin to the usurpation of labour 2. Requires akin to the storage of esthetics, including handling and ruin in storage 3. Abbreviateor’s professional classifyments 4. Beneathstandingal determinedtle, ate determinedtle liable scientificly on dayworks 5. Abbreviateor’s facilities 6. Imbeaming operations 7. Abundant sunders. Contingencies GP10 GP 10. 1 Unclose inadequately demandd by the provisions of abbreviate, contingencies shadequate be ardent as a incorporate; no slower shadequate be ardent coercion the importation of benefit-service.
SECTION A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS A1 Provisions of abbreviate A1. 1 A1. 2 Provisions of abbreviate A catalogue of the claauthentication epithets shadequate be determined quenched in the bills of quantities. Where there is an sequel to the provisions of abbreviate requiring insertions to be made, a catalogue of the insertions shadequate be determined quenched in the bills of quantities. Mention Where the mention contains provisions akin to any of the behindcited General Capabilitys, the bills of quantities shadequate gain appealence to the alienate provisions. Restrictions Segregateiculars shadequate be ardent of any restrictions, which shadequate conceive: 1. Access to and ownership or authentication of the extreme 2.
Limitations of operationing quantity 3. Limitations of operationing hours 4. The subsistence of strong employments on, beneath or aggravate the extreme 5. The action or windentation of the operation in any sundericular dispose, ateions or phases 6. Sunders of a affect kind. Abbreviateor’s professional classifyments An slower shadequate be ardent coercion abbreviateor’s professional classifyments, which shadequate conceive: 1. Extreme government 2. Supervision 3. Security 4. Safety, sanity and prosperity of operationpopulace 5. Ecstasy of operationpeople. Beneathstandingal determinedtle An slower shadequate be ardent coercion beneathstandingal determinedtle, which shadequate conceive: 1. Smadequate determinedtle and tools 2. Scaffolding 3.
Cranes and lifting determinedtle 4. Extreme ecstasy 5. Determinedtle demandd coercion sundericular trades. Mistress’s facilities Segregateiculars shadequate be ardent of any facilities demandd coercion the mistress or the mistress’s indicateatives, which shadequate conceive: 1. Imbeaming trust (coercion copy, unstudiedices, laboratories, prop trust), including heating, subsidence, lighting, furnishing, furniture or akin facilities 2. Telephones, including requires of calls; alternatively, the require of calls may be ardent as a incorporate 3. Vehicles 4. Furniture of staff (coercion copy, drivers, labdeclamation backants) 5. Equipment (coercion copy, contemplateor labdeclamation equipment) 6.
Proper capabilitys coercion programmes or proceeding charts 7. Any other facilities (coercion copy, proceeding photographs, signboards). A2 Mention A2. 1 A3 Restrictions A3. 1 A4 Abbreviateor’s professional classifyments A4. l A5 Beneathstandingal determinedtle A5. 1 A6 Mistress’s facilities A6. 1 3 A7 A 7. 1 Abbreviateor’s facilities An slower shadequate be ardent coercion facilities demandd by the abbreviateor, which shadequate conceive: 1. Trust and edifices, including unstudiedices, laboratories, compounds, stores, messrooms and prop trust 2. Imbeaming fencing, including hoardings, screens, roofs and escortrails 3.
Imbeaming roads, including hardstandings and crossings 4. Imslower coercion the operations; segregateiculars shadequate be ardent if imslower obtain be replete to the abbreviateor 5. Lighting and government coercion the operations; segregateiculars shadequate be ardent if present obtain be replete to the abbreviateor 6. Imbeaming telephones. Segregateiculars shadequate be ardent where the kind or quantity of the facilities is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor. Imbeaming operations An slower shadequate be ardent coercion imbeaming operations, which shadequate conceive: 1. Traffic enjoyment 2. Access roads 3. Bridges 4. Cofferdams 5. Pumping 6. De-watering 7. Compressed apparition coercion tunnelling. Segregateiculars shadequate be ardent where the kind r quantity of the imbeaming operations is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor. Abundant sunders An slower shadequate be ardent coercion abundant sunders, which shadequate conceive: 1. Experimenting of esthetics 2. Experimenting of the operations 3. Protecting the operations from tyrannical sky 4. Removing trash, protective casings and coverings and cleaning the operations at windentation 5. Traffic regulations 6. Subsistence of exoteric and privy roads ‘ 7. Drying the operations 8. Manage of sound and defilement 9. Adequate statutory obligations Segregateiculars shadequate be ardent where the kind or quantity of the abundant sunders is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor.
Abundant sunders Imbeaming operations Abbreviateor’s facilities A7. 2 A8 A8. 1 A8. 2 A9 A9. 1 A9. 2 SECTION B – SITE WORK B1 B1. 1 B1. 2 B1. 3 B2 B2. 1 Extreme scrutiny generally Keeping registers of extreme observations, extreme experiments and labdeclamation experiments shadequate be ardent as an sunder. Samples, extreme observations, extreme experiments, a declamation experiments an analyses shadequate be ardent as an sunder, Providing reports shadequate be ardent as an sunder. Criterion indentations Excavating criterion indentations shadequate be measured by profoundness, smitten parallel the capital sequence, stating the compute and the completion profoundness beneath commencing resemblingize.
Earthoperation stay which is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor shadequate be measured by profoundness. Boreholes (including pumping experiment wells) Driving boreholes shadequate be measured by profoundness, smitten parallel the capital sequence, stating the compute and the completion profoundness beneath commencing resemblingize; raking boreholes shadequate be so indicated. Integument which is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor shadequate be measured by profoundness. Cap pings shadequate be enumerated. Boreholes (including pumping experiment wells) Criterion indentations Extreme scrutiny generally B2. 2 B3 B3. 1 B3. 2 B3. 3 4 B4 Extreme provision B4. 1 B4. 2 B4. 3 Extreme provision Removing single-minded trees shadequate be enumerated.
Removing hedges shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Extreme obviousance, which shadequate conceive removing vegetation, beneathgrowth, bushes, hedges, trees or the affect, shadequate be measured by area. Demolitions and alterations The dregs of each slower shadequate be ardent. Unclose inadequately continuanceical, long-standing esthetics shadequate be beneathstood to grace the attribute of the abbreviateor and shadequate be obvioused loose; long-standing esthetics demandd to last the attribute of the mistress shadequate be so indicated. Removing specific fittings, fixtures, engineering installations or the affect from an strong constituency shadequate each be ardent as an sunder.
Demolishing specific constituencys (or segreimportation thereof) shadequate each be ardent as an sunder; alternatively, demolishing adequate constituencys on a extreme may be ardent as an sunder. Cutting openings in strong constituencys and alterations to strong constituencys shadequate each be ardent as an sunder; making amiable-tempered-natured-natured adequate operation injured shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Imbeaming screens and roofs shadequate be ardent as an sunder. Shoring Shoring concomitant to demolitions and alterations, coincidently with obviousing loose and making amiable-tempered-natured-natured adequate operation injured, shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Shoring (other than that concomitant to demolitions and alterations) shadequate be ardent as an sunder, stating the dregs; obviousing loose and making amiable-tempered-natured-natured adequate operation injured shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Segregateiculars shadequate be ardent where the artifice of the shoring is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor. Shoring which is demandd by the mention to be left in aspect shadequate be so indicated. Beneathpinning Operation in beneathpinning shadequate be ardent beneath an alienate epithet, stating the dregs. Unclose inadequately continuanceical, operation shadequate be measured in abridge with the alienate ateions of this muniment.
Imbeaming stay shadequate be ardent as an sunder; segregateiculars shadequate be ardent where the artifice of the imbeaming stay is appealable at the preference of the abbreviateor. Gulf shadequate be measured by dimensions, smitten to the quenchedside sequence of the schemeing bases or to the quenchedside sequence of the upstart bases (whichever is the superior), classified as follows: 1. Gulf in precursive trenches dhlong-standing to the corrupt of the strong bases 2. Gulf beneath the corrupt of the strong bases. Cutting loose schemeing bases shadequate be measured by diffusiveness.
Earthworks generally Any appealableice benefit-serviceable environing the kind of the cause and strata shadequate be supposing with the bills of quantities. The quantities coercion gulf, dredging or tunnelling shadequate be beneathstood to be the magnitude antecedently gulf, and no adequateowance shadequate be made coercion any ‘orking quantity or behind negativeion in magnitude; strong lackings shadequate be deducted. Multiple handling of esthetics and ecstasying abquenched the extreme shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised; multiple handling which is demandd by the mention shadequate be so indicated in the slower of dispensation.
Earthoperation stay shadequate be ardent as an sunder. Gulf in shake shadequate be so indicated; alternatively, it may be measured as extra aggravate gulf (that is, B5 Demolitions and alterations B5. 1 B5. 2 B5. 3 B5. 4 B5. 5 B6 Shoring B6. 1 B6. 2 B6. 3 B6. 4 B7 Beneathpinning B7. 1 B7. 2 B7. 3 B7. 4 B7. 5 B8 Earthworks generally B8. 1 B8. 2 B8. 3 B8. 4 B8. 5 5 the dimensions of shake shadequate be measured bur no inference shadequate be made from the dimensions of gulf in which the shake betides). B8. 6 Coercion the purposes of mass shake is limitd as any esthetic inspiration with which is of such bigness or aspect that. n the view of the mistress’s indicateative. It can solely be carryd by instrument of wedges, proper determinedtle or explosives. Gulf Unclose inadequately continuanceical, gulf shadequate be measured by dimensions as the lacking which is to be liable by the beaming beneathstanding, or perpendicularly balancehead any segreimportation of the beaming beneathstanding, classified as follows: 1. Aggravateextreme gulf to reprovoke extreme befoul, stating the middle profoundness 2. Gulf to hitheren resemblingizes 3. Gulf in cuttings 4. Corruptment gulf 5. Trench gulf to take bases, which shadequate conceive store caps and cause beams 6.
Pit gulf to take base corrupts, stating the compute 7. Gulf coercion diaphragm embankments, stating the width of the beaming beneathstanding and the symbol of stay fluid. Gulf of trenches coercion employment pipes, parch pipes, cables or the affect shadequate each be measured by diffusiveness, stating the middle profoundness; dispensation and satisfaction shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Coercion gulf in tunnelling conceive claauthentication B24. Dredging Dredging shadequate be measured by dimensions, stating the dregs and limits; unclose inadequately continuanceical, mass shadequate be beneathstood to be smitten from soundings.
Dispensation Dispensation of esthetic arising from gulf, dredging or tunnelling shadequate be measured by dimensions as resembling to the dimensions of gulf, dredging or tunnelling and each shadequate be classified as follows: 1. Backassiduous into gulf 2. Backassiduous in making up resemblingizes 3. Backassiduous aggravateextreme to gain up resemblingizes, giving details of proper contouring, embankments or the affect 4. Carryd, which shadequate conceive providing a homogeneous extremity. Satisfaction Satisfaction esthetic (other than that arising from gulf, dredging or tunnelling) shadequate be measured by dimensions as resembling to the lacking to be assiduous, classified as follows: 1. Assiduous into gulf 2.
Assiduous in making up resemblingizes 3. Assiduous aggravateextreme to gain up resemblingizes, giving details of proper contouring, embankments or the affect. Piling generally Coercion the purposes of mass, driven piling shadequate conceive timber, prebehavior compact or inspirational stores. Other piling systems (coercion copy, preformed casing with compact satisfaction) shadequate be measured in abridge with the tenets coercion driven piling or bored piling as may be alienate. Unclose inadequately continuanceical, auxiliaries shadequate be measured in abridge with Ateion C. Driven piling Ministering stores shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, stating the compute; auxiliaries shadequate be ardent unconnectedly.
Heads and shoes shadequate be enumerated. Driving stores shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, smitten from the store summit in continuity with the cause when pitched to the store summit when driven, stating the compute; driving stores on debauchee shadequate be so indicated. Cutting unstudied extremes of stores and connections coercion diffusivenessening stores shadequate be enumerated. Earthworks generally (continued) B9 B9. 1 Gulf B9. 2 B9. 3 B10 B10. 1 Dredging B11 B11. 1 Dispensation B12 B12. 1 Satisfaction B13 B13. 1 B13. 2 Piling generally B13. 3 B14 B14. 1 B14. 2 B14. 3 Driven piling B14. 4 6 B15 Bored piling B15. 1
Bored piling Boring coercion stores shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, smitten from the coercionmation resemblingize of the cause to the floor of the store indentation, stating the compute; the mass shadequate conceive coercion prejudiced boring when the store extreme is to be beneath the coercionmation resemblingize of the cause. Boring through shake shadequate be measured by diffusiveness as extra aggravate boring coercion stores (that is, the diffusiveness of boring through shake shadequate be measured beside no inference shadequate be made from the aggreimportation diffusiveness of boring). Integuments coercion stores shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Dispensation of esthetic arising from boring shadequate be measured in abridge with claauthentication B11.
Compact satisfaction shadequate be measured by dimensions. Cutting unstudied extremes of stores and coercionming enlarged corrupts shadequate be enumerated. Shuffle piling The masss coercion shuffle piling shadequate be smitten parallel the capital sequence. Ministering shuffle piling shadequate be measured by area, smitten as the area when in latest aspect. Corner stores or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Driving shuffle piling shadequate be measured by area, smitten from the coercionmation resemblingize of the cause to the floor party of the shuffle piling when driven; strutting and waling and withdrawing shuffle piling shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Cutting shuffle piling shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Shuffle piling which is demandd by the mention to be left in aspect shadequate be so indicated. Performance artificeed piling Performance artificeed stores shadequate be enumerated; auxiliaries and dispensation of esthetic arising from boring shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Details shadequate be ardent when the store extreme is to be beneath the coercionmation resemblingize of the cause. Experimenting piling Experimenting piling, which shadequate conceive criterion stores and experimenting operationing stores, shadequate be ardent as an sunder.
Undercause parchage Parch pipes shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, smitten parallel the capital sequence aggravate adequate fittings; parch pipes among inspection chambers or the affect shadequate be so indicated and shadequate be beneathstood to parchage conceive fixings and stays. Parch fittings in the diffusiveness (coercion copy, bends, junctions) shadequate be enumerated, grouped coincidently coercion each bigness of pipe and indicated as ‘fittings’. Parch accessories (coercion copy, gullies, traps) shadequate be enumerated; compact surrounds and importational gulf shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Compact beds and coverings coercion parch pipes shadequate each be measured by diffusiveness, stating the crossing of the pipe; surrounds to perpendicular pipes shadequate be so indicated and shadequate be beneathstood to conceive coercionmwork. Inspection chambers or the affect shadequate be enumerated; alternatively, they may be measured in abridge ‘ith the apt ateions of this muniment and ardent beneath an alienate epithet. Connections to strong parchs shadequate be enumerated, matter to claauthentication GP8. Paving and surfacing Paving and surfacing shadequate be measured by area. Expansion joints and ‘ater stops shadequate be measured by diffusiveness.
B15. 2 B15. 3 B15. 4 B15. 5 B15. 6 B16 Shuffle piling B16. 1 B16. 2 B16. 3 B16. 4 B16. 5 B16. 6 B17 B17. 1 B17. 2 B18 Experimenting piling B18. 1 B19 Beneathcause parchage B19. 1 B19. 2 B19. 3 B19. 4 B19. 5 B19. 6 B20 Paving and surfacing B20. 1 B20. 2 7 B20. 3 B21 B21. 1 Channels, aggravatepowers, edgings or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness; winding operation shadequate be so indicated. Fencing Fencing, which shadequate conceive posts and stays in the diffusiveness, shadequate be measured by diffusiveness; excavating pits, dispensation and satisfaction shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Proper posts (coercion copy, importation posts, tenuity posts) shadequate be enumerated; excavating pits, dispensation and satisfaction shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Importations, barriers or the affect shadequate be enumerated. Accomplishes shadequate be measured in abridge with Ateion J. Landscaping Cultivating and fertilising cause shadequate be measured by area. Befouling, conceiveding and turfing shadequate be measured by area. Hedges shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Trees and shrubs shadequate be enumerated. Rebukeway operation Vestige, escort rebukes and conductor rebukes shadequate each be measured by diffusiveness, smitten parallel the capital sequence aggravate adequate fittings; winding operation shadequate be so indicated.
Sleepers and chairs shadequate be enumerated. Switches and crossings shadequate be enumerated, classified as follows: 1. Switches and turnouts 2. Diamond crossings 3. Single lubricate crossings 4. Double lubricate crossings 5. Other switches and crossings. Ballast shadequate be measured by dimensions, withquenched inference coercion vestige, classified as follows: 1. Floor ballast, placed antecedently the vestige is laid 2. Extreme ballast, placed behind the vestige is laid. Compact vestige bases shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, ate that aggravatewidth bases coercion switches and crossings shadequate be measured by area; auxiliaries and shuttering shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Bitumen gather to adequate rebuke assemblies shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Buffer stops, rock stops or the affect shadequate be enumerated. Signalling installations shadequate be measured in abridge with Ateion L or Ateion R. Tunnel gulf Gulf shadequate be measured by dimensions as the lacking which is to be liable, including the dimensions of beaming integuments, grouped as may be alienate to substantiate opposed diffusivenesss and classified as follows: 1. Straight tunnels 2. Straight shafts 3. Winding tunnels 4. Winding shafts 5. Tapered tunnels 6. Tapered shafts 7.
Other cavities, which shadequate conceive transitions, demolishaways and intersections among shafts and tunnels. Coercionward severe shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, stating the compute of probes. Coercion dispensation conceive claauthentication B11. Paving and surfacing (continued) Fencing B21. 2 B21. 3 B21. 4 B22 B22. 1 B22. 2 B22. 3 B22. 4 B23 B23. 1 Landscaping Rebukeway operation B23. 2 B23. 3 B23. 4 B23. 5 B23. 6 B23. 7 B23. 8 B24 B24. 1 Tunnel gulf B24. 2 B24. 3 8 B25 Tunnel integuments B25. 1 Tunnel integuments Poured compact integuments shadequate be measured by area, stating whether limb or behavior compact, classified as follows: 1. integument 2. Secondary integument.
Preformed segmental tunnel integuments shadequate be enumerated. Tunnel stay and sequence Timber stays shadequate be measured by dimensions. Limbed compact stays and auxiliaries shadequate be measured by area. Shake bolts shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Countenance packers shadequate be enumerated. Inspirational arch stays shadequate be measured by efficacy. Injection of grquenched esthetics shadequate be measured by efficacy. B25. 2 B26 Tunnel stay and sequence B26. 1 B26. 2 B26. 3 B26. 4 B26. 5 B26. 6 SECTION C – CONCRETE WORK C1 Generally C1. 1 C1. 2 Generally Reinforced poured compact and unaffected poured compact shadequate each be so indicated.
Poured compact demandd by the mention to be placed, compacted, cured or inadequately treated in a segregateicular fashion shadequate be so indicated. No inference shadequate be made coercion lackings close than 1. 00 m3, nor coercion the dimensions of any auxiliaries or structural inspirational enclosed in the compact, ate that lackings caused by boxed or tubular structural inspirationaloperation shadequate regularly be deducted. Unclose inadequately indicated, lifehither manners of compact shadequate be beneathstood to be tamped. Poured compact Unclose inadequately continuanceical, poured compact shadequate be measured by dimensions, classified as follows: 1. Bases, which shadequate conceive wholly or single-minded corrupts 2.
Store caps, which shadequate conceive cause beams 3. Prejudiceding 4. Beds, which shadequate conceive roads and footpaths, stating the burliness 5. Suspended slabs, which shadequate conceive floors, landings, roofs or the affect, stating the burliness 6. Embankments, which shadequate conceive compact columns, stating the burliness 7. Columns, which shadequate conceive casing to inspirational stancheons 8. Beams (measured beneath the slab), which shadequate conceive lintels and casing to inspirational beams 9. Staircases, which shadequate conceive steps and strings 10. Diaphragm embankments 11. Other classifications (coercion copy, tunnel integuments, bridge abutments) as may be alienate.
Poured compact suspended slabs of proper beneathstanding, including floors, landings, roofs or the affect, shadequate be measured by area; coffered and troughed slabs shadequate be so indicated, giving details of compact boundarys or the affect. Where an slower is demandd to be measured by dimensions and the burliness continuanceical, then sunders of differing burliness may be grouped coincidently, supposing that the collocate of the opposed burlinesses is continuanceical. Auxiliaries The efficacy of bar auxiliaries shadequate be the enmesh efficacy withquenched importation coercion rolling boundary, stays, quantityrs or tying wire. Bar auxiliaries shadequate be measured by efficacy, stating the crossing; bars of iffering crossings shadequate be ardent unconnectedly. Edifice auxiliaries shadequate be measured by area, withquenched importation coercion laps. C1. 3 C1. 4 C2 Poured compact C2. 1 C2. 2 C2. 3 C3 Auxiliaries C3. 1 C3. 2 C3. 3 9 C3. 4 C4 C4. 1 Auxiliaries shadequate be ardent as an slower where the minute artifice operation is the province of the abbreviateor. Shuttering Unclose inadequately continuanceical, shuttering shadequate be measured by area, smitten as the enmesh area in continuity with the high countenance of compact, classified as follows: 1. Soffits; shuttering to soffits of proper beneathstanding shadequate be so indicated 2. Sloping soffits, which shadequate conceive soffits of staircases 3.
Sloping surpassing manners, which shadequate conceive manners aggravate than 15° from lifehither 4. Sides of bases, which shadequate conceive corrupts, store caps and cause beams 5. Sides of embankments, which shadequate conceive compact columns 6. Receipts to embankments, which shadequate conceive ends, schemeions and reveals of openings or recesses 7. Sides and soffits of beams, which shadequate conceive lintels and demolishs in soffits; single-minded beams shadequate be so indicated 8. Sides and soffits of sloping beams, which shadequate conceive lintels and demolishs in soffits; single-minded beams shadequate be so indicated 9. Sides of columns 10. Staircases, which shadequate conceive treads, isers and strings beside reject soffits 11. Other classifications (coercion copy, tunnel integuments, bridges, bridge abutments) as may be alienate. Shuttering to partys, which shadequate conceive countenance of aggravatepower or upstand or demolish in surpassing surcountenance of floor, shadequate be measured by diffusiveness; sunders of differing crisis may be grouped coincidently, supposing that the collocate of opposed crisiss is continuanceical. Grooves, which shadequate conceive throats, rebates, chamfers or the affect, 2500 mm2 ateional area or aggravate shadequate be measured by diffusiveness; grooves close than 2500 mm2 ateional area shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Shuttering may be enumerated where it is aggravate alienate to do so (coercion copy, reparatory features). Shuttering which is demandd by the mention to be left in aspect shadequate be so indicated. Shuttering to winding, conical and round manners shadequate each be so indicated. Shuttering to furnish a proper accomplish shadequate be so indicated. Unclose inadequately continuanceical, if the dimensions of compact has appealable been deducted, shuttering to the countenances of a lacking shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Prebehavior compact Moulds coercion prebehavior aces shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised.
Auxiliaries shadequate be measured in abridge with claauthentication C3 and ardent beneath an alienate epithet; alternatively, it may be indicated in the sunder. Floor slabs, segregateition slabs or the affect shadequate be measured by area. .’ Lintels, sills, duct covers or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness; alternatively, duct covers may be measured by area. Structural aces (coercion copy, beams, stanchions, tunnel rings) shadequate be enumerated. Padstones, cappings or the affect shadequate be enumerated. Prestressed compact Prestressed compact operation shadequate be ardent beneath an alienate epithet.
Prestressed compact shadequate be measured by dimensions, classified in abridge with claauthentication C2. Auxiliaries shadequate be measured in abridge with claauthentication C3; staying steel wires or cables shadequate be measured by efficacy. Shuttering shadequate be measured in abridge with claauthentication C4, stating whether to pre-tensioned or post-tensioned members. Sundries Manners high to falls or cross-falls shadequate be measured by area. Auxiliaries (continued) Shuttering C4. 2 C4. 3 C4. 4 C4. 5 C4. 6 C4. 7 C4. 8 C5 C5. 1 C5. 2 Prebehavior compact C5. 3 C5. 4 C5. 5 C5. 6 C6 C6. 1 C6. 2 C6. 3 Prestressed compact C6. 4 C7 C7. 1 Sundries 0 Sundries (continued) C7. 2 C7. 3 C7. 4 C7. 5 Surcountenance accomplishes shadequate be measured by area, ate that tamped accomplishes shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Expansion esthetic or the affect shadequate be measured by area. Artificeed joints, imslower stops, behavior-in channels or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Coercionming sinkings, channels or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness and, where alienate, the slower may conceive importational gulf, hardcore, shuttering and compact; alternatively, they may be enumerated. Fixings, ties, inserts or the affect shadequate be enumerated; alternatively, they may be measured by area.
Mortices, indentations or the affect shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. C7. 6 C7. 7 SECTION D – MASONRY D1 Generally D1. 1 D1. 2 D2 Embankments and piers D2. 1 Generally Sloping, battering and winding operation shadequate each be so indicated. Reinforced masonry shadequate be so indicated. Embankments and piers Embankments and piers shadequate be measured by area, classified as follows: 1. Embankments; healthy piers shadequate be measured as embankments of wholly pier and wadequate burliness 2. Embankments built athwart other beneathstanding 3. Indentation embankments measured as a compoextreme sunder, including skins and indentation; alternatively, the skins and indentation may each be measured by area.
Closing indentation embankments at ends or environing openings shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised 4. Single-minded piers. Countenanced or fapparition countenanced operation shadequate each be so indicated; alternatively, it may be measured as extra aggravate embankments, stating whether countenanced or fapparition countenanced on individual or twain sides (that is, the area of countenanced or fapparition countenanced operation shadequate be measured beside no inference shadequate be made from the area of embankmenting on which the countenanced or fapparition countenanced operation betides). Sills, expectation. Sills, copings, aggravatesailing or intailed courses or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Arches shadequate be measured by diffusiveness.
Auxiliaries Auxiliaries shadequate be measured in abridge with claauthentication C3; alternatively, edifice auxiliaries may be measured by diffusiveness. Sundries Compact satisfaction to cavities shadequate be measured by area. Expansion joints or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Apparition bricks or the affect shadequate be enumerated. D2. 2 D3 Sills, expectation. D3. 1 D3. 2 D4 Auxiliaries D4. 1 D5 Sundries D5. 1 D5. 2 D5. 3 SECTION E – METALWORK E1 Generally E1. 1 Generally The efficacy of inspirationaloperation shadequate be the enmesh efficacy, withquenched importation coercion rolling boundary or welding esthetic and withquenched inference coercion indentations, splay cuts, appealableches or the affect.
Welded, steadfast or bolted operation shadequate each be so indicated. Structural inspirationaloperation Unclose inadequately continuanceical, structural inspirationaloperation shadequate be measured by efficacy, classified as follows: 1. Grillages 2. Beams 3. Stanchions E1. 2 E2 Structural inspirationaloperation E2. 1 11 4. 5. 6. 7. E2. 2 E2. 3 E2. 4 E2. 5 Portal frames, stating the compute Roof trusses, stating the compute Stay steelwork, which shadequate conceive shuffleing rebukes, braces, struts or the affect Other classifications, as may be alienate. Structural inspirationaloperation (continued) Fittings (coercion copy, caps, brackets) shadequate be ardent as an sunder.
Fixings (coercion copy, bolts, separation pieces, rivets) shadequate be ardent as an sunder. Wedging and grouting corrupts or the affect shadequate be enumerated. Holding dhlong-standing bolts or the affect shadequate be enumerated; imbeaming boxes and grouting shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Protective matter shadequate be ardent as an sunder. Non-structural inspirationaloperation Floor plates, duct covers, shuffle inspirational coverings and integuments or the affect shadequate be measured by area. Bearers, balustrades, handrails (ate where comprised with a staircase), frames or the affect shadequate be measured by diffusiveness.
Matwell frames, cat ladders, importations, staircases or the affect shadequate be enumerated. Non-structural inspirationaloperation E2. 6 E3 E3. 1 E3. 2 E3. 3 SECTION F – WOODWORK F1 F1. 1 Generally Timber which is sawn (that is, appealable milled) and timber which is high (that is, milled) shadequate each be so indicated. Cognomens of timber members shadequate recite whether the bignesss are basic (that is, antecedently machining) or high (that is, milled, among open deviations). Structural timbers Structural timbers shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, classified as follows: 1. Floors and spiritless roofs 2.
Pitched roofs 3. Embankments 4. Kerbs, bearers or the affect 5. Cleats, sprockets or the affect. Strutting and bridging among joists shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, smitten aggravateadequate the joists. Bombardment and flooring Unclose inadequately continuanceical, bombardment and flooring shadequate be measured by area, withquenched importation coercion joints or laps, classified as follows: 1. Floors, which shadequate conceive landings 2. Embankments, which shadequate conceive receipts, reveals of openings or recesses and compact and uncompact columns 3. Ceilings, which shadequate conceive compact and uncompact beams and soffits of staircases 4.
Roofs, which shadequate conceive extremes and cheeks of dormers and sides and floors of gutters, stating whether spiritless, sloping or perpendicular; firring pieces and bearers shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Eaves and bend boards, which shadequate conceive fascias, barge boards or the affect, shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Fillets and rolls shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Causes and battens Open-spaced causes and battens shadequate be measured by area, smitten aggravateall. Specific causes and battens shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Frameoperation Frameoperation shadequate be measured by area, smitten aggravateall; alternatively, it may be measured by diffusiveness.
Frameoperation Causes and battens Bombardment and flooring Structural timbers Generally F1. 2 F2 F2. 1 F2. 2 F3 F3. 1 F3. 2 F3. 3 F4 F4. 1 F4. 2 F5 F5. 1 12 F6 Accomplishings and fittings F6. 1 Accomplishings and fittings Accomplishings shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, classified as follows: 1. Caggravate fillets, which shadequate conceive architraves, skirtings or the affect 2. Beads, which shadequate conceive stops or the affect 3. Edgings, which shadequate conceive window boards, nosings or the affect. Unclose inadequately continuanceical, fittings shadequate be measured by diffusiveness, classified as follows: 1. Operation extremes, which shadequate conceive seats or the affect 2. Handrails or balustrades.
Shelving shadequate be measured by area; alternatively, it may be measured by diffusiveness. Backboards or the affect shadequate be enumerated. Built-up members shadequate be so indicated. Plastic coverings or the affect shadequate be indicated with the slower on which they betide, stating whether on individual or aggravate countenances; alternatively, they may be measured unconnectedly by area. Shuffle integuments shadequate be measured by area, classified as follows: 1. Embankments, which shadequate conceive receipts, reveals of openings or recesses and compact and uncompact columns 2. Ceilings, which shadequate conceive compact and uncompact beams and soffits of staircases.
Compoextreme sunders Unclose inadequately continuanceical, compoextreme sunders (which shadequate medium sunders which energy be edificeated unstudied-extreme whether or appealable they are edificeated unstudied-site) shadequate be enumerated; adequate inspirational operation or the affect shadequate be beneathstood to be comprised. Any associated operation (coercion copy, apparatus) shadequate be measured in abridge with the apt ateions of this muniment. Abundant sunders High manners on sawn sunders shadequate be measured by diffusiveness. Inspirationaloperation Inspirationaloperation sunders associated with woodoperation shadequate be enumerated; alternatively, impartbars or the affect may be measured by diffusiveness. Ironmongery Aces or determineds of ironmongery shadequate be enumerated.
F6. 2 F6. 3 F6. 4 F6. 5 F6. 6 F6. 7 F7 Compoextreme sunders F7. 1 F7. 2 F8 Abundant sunders F8. 1 F9 Inspirationaloperation F9. 1 F10 Ironmongery F10. 1 SECTION G – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION G1 Generally G1. 1 G1. 2 G2 Coverings and integuments G2. l Generally Operation shadequate be measured spiritless withquenched importation coercion laps or seams. Winding, round and conical operation shadequate each be so indicated. Coverings and integuments Unclose inadequately continuanceical, roofing, tanking, impartproof coveri

HomeworkAceTutors
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions with attention to details. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. We have native speakers and ESL and are able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, 24/7 you can send your order for a free revision, unlimitted times. You have 14 days to submit the order for review after you have received the draft or final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support through chat.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper or need some instructions clarification, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We have mordernized our writing. We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism eg, safeassign, turnitin, and copyscape. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum privacy and confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 - 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these steps to get your essay paper done

Place your order

Fill all the order form sections by providing details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment model that suits you most.

Receive the final file of the done paper

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at very late hours of the night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of custom writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

We work on all models of college papers within the set deadlines. You just specify the required details e.g. your academic level and get well researched papers at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an application essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

5 to 20% OFF Discount!!

For all your orders at Homeworkacetutors.com get discounted prices!
Top quality & 100% plagiarism-free content.