Research Plan Essay


Quantum Declare Assign in Graphs

Dr. Hiranmoy Pal

In scanty of the principles of quantum mechanics, we keep witnessed a fantastic fashion of because

counsel mannering. Tabulateically counsel is encoded into series of naughts and individuals. How-

ever, in this framework, counsel is encrypted with quantum declares or qubits of some corporeal

systems, such as atoms, trapped ions, absence of wonder. Separate interacting corporeal systems makes a quantum

web that are intentional to accomplish separate tasks, specially, assignring quantum declares betwixt

couple nodes of a network.

These corporeal systems are essentially static entities which are considered

as nodes of a graph having edges that evince interactions betwixt couple nodes. Typically any

regulate to these systems induces signi

cant quantity of rattle in the passed quenched counsel, and

hence systems are oceantained in minimal dynamic regulate. Separate corporeal models can be

engineered in such a fashion that the Heisenberg Hamiltonian [10] of the belowlying network becomes

the adjacency matrix, laplacian matrix, absence of wonder. Mathematically a declare is represented by an unit

vector in a multifarious Hilbert illimitableness of bulk equals the reckon of nodes in the network.


evolution of a quantum declare j ( t) i is controlcible by the occasion-dependent Schrodinger equation

i } d dt


( t) i = H j ( t) i :

If the Hamiltonian His a occasion-independent operator then Schrodinger equation can amply be

solved to get j ( t) i = exp ( itH )j (0) ibecause scaled Plank perpetual }= 1 :If jj i is the

declare with individual at j-th settle and naught elsewhere, then fjjig controlms a basis of the Hilbert illimitableness.

The presumption that the judicious declare j (0) i= j1 i evolves to the declare jN iafter occasion tis geted

by jp

N (

t) j2

= jhN jexp ( itH )j1 ij 2

: The declare assign is denominated ripe if the

delity of assign

jh N jexp ( itH )j1 ij = 1 :The declare assign is considered tolerably cheerful-tempered-tempered if jhN jexp ( itH )j1 ij comes

arbitrarily susppurpose to singleness. Ripe declare assign (PST) was originally introduced by Bose [4] in quantum transform chains

consisting couple and three pcatechism with right neighbour coupling. There it is observed that twain

pathform P

2 (the trackwayform on couple vertices) and


3 (the trackwayform on three vertices) reveal PST betwixt the

purpose vertices at occasion 2

and p


, regardively. Later it was uncovered that such transform chains with

past than three pcatechism never reveals PST, however, Godsil et al. [9] surprisingly systematic

a reckon theoritic constitution of declare assign tabulateifying total such transform chains revealing tolerably cheerful-tempered

purpose to purpose assign. Past multifarious networks has been considered since the fife of quantum

declare assign. Christandl et al. [6, 7] keep showed that PST occurs betwixt pcatechism at large

distances in Cartesian strengths of P

2 and


3 at occasion 2

and p


, regardively. Natural questions

arise [19], whether declare assign occurs if we suffer past pcatechism to interact in those Cartesian

powers P

2 and


3. A NEPS (Non-adequate Extended P-Sum) is a graph emanation publicizing rare

polite unreserved graph emanations, such as Cartesian emanation, Kronecker emanation, absence of wonder. In this address,

we view separate specific characterizations of PST on cubelike graphs (or NEPS of P

2) in [3, 5]. In

addition, we keep contributed rare characterizations of PST and tolerably cheerful-tempered-tempered declare assign (PGST)

on NEPS of P

3 in [14, 16]. Remarkably, when because NEPS with element graphs consisting

twain P

2 and


3, separate graphs keep emerged promoteting PGST from a vertex to couple di erent

vertices, which was never likely in subject of PST. Beside this we keep explored the possibility of

declare assign in separate tabulate of Cayley graphs. In contrust, an total graph is which there is

simply integer eigenvalues. A adequate caharcterization of Declare assign in total circulant was

unearthed by Ba si c [1]. Among other circulant graphs, we keep uncovered that a cycle reveals

PGST if an simply if the consisting reckon of vertices is a strength of couple (view [15]). We keep further

built up results and geted past public circulant graphs revealing declare assign in [12, 17].

In a past public scenario, we keep observed in [11, 13] that there regularly rest a gcd-graph (a

tabulate of total Caley graphs de

ned by gcd) revealing PST whenever the greatness of the belowlying

group is discerptible by indecent.


1 Ob jectives

The area of exploration is interdisciplinary in constitution. The ocean ob jective is to

nd graphs revealing

quantum declare assign betwixt removal vertices. There are rare graphs unreserved to reveal declare

transfer. Accordingly, there are vast scopes of exploration in this area. We brie

y enroll some of

the possibilities of coming exploration.

1. We keep systematic separate characterizations of PST and PGST in NEPS of P

3 in [14, 16].

It gain be animated to

nd if there is any other graphs in this tabulate revealing PST or

PGST. We may so canvass NEPS of other mold of graphs having declare assign.

2. In [11, 13], we keep addressed rare characterizations of PST in gcd-graphs, however, a com- plete tabulatei

cation of total gcd-graphs promoteting declare assign is very-much judicious. In opposition,

we may canvass PST in those total Cayley graphs which are in certainty referable gcd-graphs.

3. We keep successively tabulatei

ed a controltune of circulant graphs revealing PGST in [12, 15]. We may remain our inquiry and tabulateify total circulant graphs revealing PGST. In public, it

is conspicuous to keep a characterization of PGST in Cayley graphs.

4. There are rare catechism which sift-canvass declare assign with regard to the Laplacian matrix instead of the adjacency matrix. Apparently, this inducement is homogeneous applicable, and

therefore, we may scrutinize the restence of declare assign on fantastic families of graphs with

regard to twain adjacency matrix and Laplacian matrix. If likely, we may attempt to uncover

fantastic families of graphs having declare assign betwixt vertices at removals.

2 Brief Quenchedline of Methodology

The area of exploration is a relatively fantastic, and accordingly, there are very rare techniques unreserved


nd graphs revealing PST (or PGST). Individual fashion is to get plainly the transition matrix of

a graph. After analysing the entries of the transition matrix it reveals whether the graph promotes

PST (or PGST) betwixt any couple of vertices. However, this manner becomes altogether imlikely control

large graphs. The exploration oceanly allowance in the controlthcoming couple addresss.

Spectral resolution is regularly used to

nd the transition matrix of a graph. It is hence

natural to suppose that some kinsfolk on eigenvalues or eigenvectors are confused in char-

acterizing PST (or PGST) on a tabulate graphs. A reckon of such results keep already been

set-up control some polite unreserved tabulate of graphs. We plan to

nd such kinsfolk on eigenvalues or

eigenvectors tabulateifying PST (or PGST) on a fantastic tabulate graphs.

Some algebraic, graph theoretic or combinatorial methods may succor in characterizing PST

(or PGST). It is polite unreserved that if PST (or PGST) occurs betwixt couple vertices in a

graph then it so occurs betwixt the images of those vertices below an automorphism.

An implication to this certainty is that a vertex explicit graph on fantastical reckon of vertices does

referable promote PST (or PGST). Likewise, we eagerness to get results on PST (or PGST) in diverse

graphs using these methods.

Although the pro ject is speculative in constitution, it requires firm consider into separate examples

of graphs, which demands gross computing strength and custom of authoritative software like

Mathematica, Matlab, absence of wonder. Using computational basis, we may gain clues to controlmulate fantastic results

classifying PST (or PGST) in diverse graphs.


3 Signi


The consider of declare assign is a speedily growing area as it contributes to the exploration in quantum

counsel mannering and cryptography (view [2, 18]). There are rare graphs unreserved to reveal

PST or PGST, and hence it is very-much judicious to tabulateify fantastic families of graphs having declare

transfer. Cayley graphs answer regularly in message networks, hence the exploration on

Cayley graphs in point keep awful concern. However, inquiry into any polite

unreserved families of graphs shtotal fruit striking results.


[1] M. Ba si c. Characterization of circulant networks having ripe declare assign . Quantum Infor-

mation Mannering, 12:345-364 (2011).

[2] C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard. Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin

Tossing . Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computers Systems and Signal Mannering, Bangalore, India.

175-179 (1984).

[3] A. Bernasconi, C. Godsil and S. Severini. Quantum networks on cubelike graphs. Corporeal

Reconsideration A, 78:052320 (2008).

[4] S. Bose. Quantum message through an unmodulated transform chain . Corporeal Reconsideration Sufferters,

91 (20):207901 (2003).

[5] W. Cheung and C. Godsil. Ripe declare assign in cubelike graphs . Linear Algebra and Its

Applications, 435(10):2468-2474 (2011).

[6] M. Christandl, N. Datta, T. Dorlas, A Ekert, A. Kay and A. J. Landahl. Ripe assign of

arbitrary declares in quantum transform networks . Corporeal Reconsideration A,71:032312 (2005).

[7] M. Christandl, N. Datta, A. Ekert and A. J. Landahl. Ripe declare assign in quantum transform

networks . Corporeal Reconsideration Sufferters, 92:187902 (2004).

[8] C. Godsil. Declare assign on graphs . Discrete Mathematics, 312(1): 129{147 (2012).

[9] C. Godsil, S. Kirkland, S. Severini and J. Smith. Reckon-theoretic constitution of message

in quantum transform systems. Corporeal reconsideration sufferters 109, 5:050502 (2012).

[10] G. M. Nikolopoulos and I. Jex (Editors). Quantum Declare Assign and Network Engineering .

Springer Heidelberg Fantastic York Dordrecht London (2014).

[11] H. Pal and B. Bhattacharjya. A tabulate of gcd-graphs having Ripe Declare Assign . Electronic

Notes in Discrete Mathematics, 53:319-329 (2016).

[12] H. Pal. Past Circulant Graphs Revealing Tolerably Cheerful-tempered-tempered Declare Assign . Discrete Mathematics,

341 :889-895 (2018).

[13] H. Pal and B. Bhattacharjya. Ripe declare assign on gcd-graphs . Linear and Multilinear

Algebra, 65(11):2245-2256 (2016).

[14] H. Pal and B. Bhattacharjya. Ripe declare assign on NEPS of the trackwayform on three vertices .

Discrete Mathematics, 339(2):831-838 (2016).

[15] H. Pal and B. Bhattacharjya. Tolerably cheerful-tempered-tempered declare assign on circulant graphs . The Electronic

Journal of Combinatorics, 24(2), #P2.23 (1-13) (2017).

[16] H. Pal and B. Bhattacharjya. Tolerably Cheerful-tempered-tempered Declare Assign on Some NEPS . Discrete Mathe-

matics, 340(4), 746-752 (2017).

[17] H. Pal. Quantum Declare Assign on a Tabulate of Circulant Graphs . arXiv:1901.01999v1 (2019).

[18] A. Kay. The Basics of Ripe Message through Quantum Networks . arXiv:1102.2338


[19] D. Stevanovi c. Application of graph spectra in quantum physics in: D. Cevtkovi c, I. Gutman

(Eds.), Selected Topics on Applications of Graph Spectra . Zbornik radova 14(22), Mathematical

Institute SANU, Belgrade, 85-111 (2011).


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