|Muniment ID: |Standard Uncounted Procedures’ Title: |Print Date: | |ORIGIN-CA2 |CASSAVA PROCESSING |08/07/2012 | |Revision: |Written By: |Date Handy: | |01 |Ayodele E. J.
AJAYI, General Manager Operations |08/07/2012 | |Effective Date: |Reviewed By: |Date Reviewed: | |mm/dd/yyyy | |mm/dd/yyyy | | |Approved By: |Date Approved: | | | |mm/dd/yyyy | |Pertinent Standard: Nsingle | |Company: ORIGIN Group of Companies Limited Vegeblooming Foods Limited, Nigeria. | |In Africa, cassava is mainly used manage civilized decrement in diversified managems ranging from quenchedburst the blooming tuber to regularitying it into cassava flour. |[pic] Cassava ruefulness in the making: bloomingly harvested commencements flatten | |parallel a conveyor enclose at a regularitying introduce in Brazil | | | |[pic] | | | | | | | | | |Cassava Ruefulness. | | | | |
Policy: It is a device of this Company to afford Standard Uncounted Procedure muniments that hold instructions on how to act assigned lessons. Scope: The scope of this muniment is to determine that tenor lessons on the farm are acted unendangeredly, qualitatively and in consent with pertinent regulations. Below are some of the ways, this Standard Uncounted Procedure could keep trodden or introdden substantial collision on ORIGIN Group’s Agric interest actance: a) People need magnitude to conclude purpose actance. This SOP gain attenuate plan abnormity, which is the foe of genesis power and nature manage. b) This SOP gain dispose inoculation.
Having exhaustive plod-by-plod instructions aids trainers determine that referablehing is missed and affords a relation means manage trainees. c) This SOP can be an palliable relation muniment on how a lesson is completeed and what are the expectations from employees filling in on the jobs they do referable act on a recurrent premise. d) This SOP can aid in conducting actance evaluations. They afford a sordid mind manage what needs to be completeed and shared expectations manage how lessons are exhaustived. e) Employees can coach and patronage each other if there is munimentation accelerationful on accurately how diversified lessons must be completeed and everysingle knows what their co-workers are reputed to be doing.
This can to-boot aid produce a aid cooperative team advent to getting complete the daily lessons completeed unexceptionably, trite. f) This SOP encourages recurrent evaluation of is-sue conduct and normal progress in how things are completeed. Scope: This SOP is written manage Genesis Managers, Lab Technician, Factory is-sueers and Sales Distributors. The favoring lessons among “Cassava Regularitying” are genial. This SOP does referable caggravate the Cassava Genesis, Harvesting and Marketing. Responsibilities: The Genesis Managers, Lab Technician, Factory is-sueers and Sales Distributors should be binding manage coordinating and implementing the Cassava Regularitying Factory and emanation sales lessons.
The Genesis Manager is binding manage inoculation and managing the Factory Is-sueers, Supervisors, Lab Techs etc; Genesis Manager should patronage the objectives policies of the Company and afford input to aid fruit of SOPs. He/she would be binding manage planning, organizing, supervising and managing the activities of the integral factory and the tenor subsistence of complete factory equipment. Factory Is-sueers are expected to perconceive their duties efficiently and in consent with the Standard Uncounted Procedures, is-sue manual and equipment manual affordd. The Standard Uncounted Procedures 1. 0 Cassava regularitying Cassava regularitying present at increasing the nature and storforce of cassava tubers.
This enhances the coercionce of the farmers to educe appended emanations, such as baking emanations quenched of cassava flour. It aid determines abatement or entirety elimination of ineligible toxic constituents in cassava so that it is eligible manage civilized decrement. A. Producing Cassava Flour and Chips: I. Using low-cyanide varieties – Bloomingly harvested cassava is peeled using a knife. The peeled cassava is then washed and sliced into smaller pieces (chips). These are then dried on a wealthy platconceive inferior trodden sun manage abquenched 2 days or specially-made driers, until dampness satisfied of abquenched 8 to 10 % is reached. Correctly dried chips behove resistent to tear-asunder, beside pulverize into flour when peril with a obdurate allot approve a demur.
The arefaction regularity should be completeed normally and the arefaction chips should referable be laagered anewlight to insinuate to quit consequenceion. The chips may then be reason or milled into flour; dried chips hoard ameliorate than flour. II. Using excellent-cyanide varieties – Bloomingly uprooted cassava are peeled and sliced into smaller pieces (chips). The sliced chips are then dried in the sun manage abquenched 3 days to abquenched 14 % dampness satisfied. The chips are then soaked in insinuate manage 8 hours, and dried anewlight to a dampness satisfied of abquenched 8 %. B. Producing Gari – Rankleed cassava dough: Gari is a creamy-white or yellow dried cassava emanation, sordid in West Africa. It is handy by exfoliation the quenchedside of the tuber skin and washed. The washed tubers are then grooved using a groover.
It is then packed in bags with holes to parch extempore the clear and left to rankle manage 1 to 5 days, insisting on the preferred flavour. The rankleed representative is then compressed to permit quenched the extra insinuate leaving a cassava cake. The retaining cake is docile sparse and propagate on frying metal trays aggravatehead a fervor. The alloticles are fried until brittle and juiceless, abquenched 10 % dampness satisfied. The gari is then shyed, sieved and packed manage sale or storage. C. Cassava Ruefulness origin Succeeding washing and exfoliation, commencements are grooved to exempt ruefulness granules. The “ruefulness milk” – insinuate holding suspended granules then, disjoined from the controlest, succeeding which the granules are disjoined from the insinuate by sedimentation or in a centrifuge.
At that purpose, the ruefulness demands brilliant or deceptive arefaction to transport dampness antecedently entity milled, sieved and packed. In artisanal genesis plans, daily ruefulness quenchedput ranges from 50 to 60 kg of ruefulness per is-sueer, conjuncture semi-mechanized regularitying can resign up to 10 tonnes a day. In later, amply mechanized ruefulness origin introduces, daily quenchedput is as excellent as 150 tonnes. Cassava Regularitying Equipment I. Unwritten cassava regularitying does referable demand varnished equipment. Regularitying cassava into gari demands equipment such as groover, compresser and fryer. The unwritten cassava groaggravate is rabide of flattened kerosene tin or able-bodied equivocation perforated with nails and fastened onto a controlesten table with handles.
Grating is completeed by attrition the peeled commencements anewst the blunt perforated demeanor of the able-bodied equivocation which admiration extempore the peeled cassava commencement flesh into mash. In late years, diversified attempts keep been rabide to ameliorate groovers. Groovers which are enclose-driven from a static 5 HP Lister cast engine keep been educeed and are entity unsparingly used in Nigeria. Its talents to groove cassava is abquenched single ton of blooming peeled commencements per hour. II. Manage parching increase clear from the grooved controlest the sacks holding the grooved controlesty magnitude are sloth compressed down using a 30-ton hydraulic jack comcomcrush with controlesten platforms, antecedently sieving and roasting into gari. Stones are used in unwritten regularitying to comcomcrush quenched the increase dampness from the grooved controlest.
Tied controlesten frames are used manage this scope in places where stones are referable accelerationful. Pans rabide from able-bodied or earthen pots are used manage roasting the rankleed controlest. Fuel controlest is the rabid or fountain of courage manage quenchedburst, roasting, steaming and frying. Fuel controlest may referable be amply and cheaply obtained in the restraintthcoming consequently of accelerated deforestation. III. Slight qualifys in the equipment used in regularitying can aid to catch fuel and decline the unpleasantness, bloom peril, and business manage the uncounted women. The economic victory of any restraintthcoming interchangeable fruit of cassava regularitying would insist upon the adaptforce of each regularitying tendency to mechanization.
However, the chief plod to receive manage progress of cassava technologies should be to ameliorate or modify the absolute regularitying equipment or plans soon used, rather than to qualify integrally to newlight, varnished, and costly equipment. Storage of cassava regularityed emanations Regularitying, in-particular arefaction and roasting, increases disposal conduct of cassava emanations. Good-tempered-natured-natured-natured storage insists on the dampness satisfied of the emanations and weather and referring-to dampness of the storage environment. The dampness satisfied of gari manage unendangered storage is belong 12. 7%. When weather and referring-to dampness are aggravatehead 27°C and 70% respectively, gari goes poorly (Igbeka 1987). The cast of bag used manage packing to-boot affects disposal conduct insisting on the coercionce of the representative to retain unendangered emanation dampness levels.
Jute and hessian bags are recommended in juiceless shy environments consequently they completeow good-tempered-natured-natured-natured scent (Igbeka 1987). When gari, dried controlest and flour are well-behaved-behaved dried and correctly packed, they can be hoardd withquenched damage of nature manage aggravate single year. Dried cassava balls (“kumkum”) can be hoardd manage up to 2 years (Nummanage purpose Ay 1987). “Chickwangue”, “Myondo” and “Bobolo” can be preserved manage up to 1 week beside they can be kept manage various aid days when recooked. Cassava leaves as vegetable I. Cassava shoots of 30 cm diffusiveness (measured from the purpose) are harvested from the introduces. The obdurate petioles are transportd and the blades and early petioles are pounded with a pestle in a mortar.
A abnormity of this regularity involves blanching the leaves antecedently pounding. The resulting controlest is then boded manage abquenched 30-60 minutes. In some countries, the chief boiled insinuate is decanted and replaced. Pepper, palm-oil and other balmy ingredients are adventitious. The conformation is then boiled manage 30 minutes (Nummanage and Ay 1987). Unapprove the commencements that are requisitely carbohydrate, cassava leaves are a good-tempered-natured-natured-natured fountain of protein and vitamins which can afford a costly addition to predominantly ruefulnessy diets. Cassava leaves are noble-flavored in protein, calcium, able-bodied and vitamins, comparing favorably with other uncooked vegetables generally present as good-tempered-natured-natured-natured protein fountains.
The amino animated compound of cassava leaves shows that, exclude manage methionine, the requisite amino animated values in cassava achieve those of the FAO relation protein (Lancaster and Brooks 1983). II. The entirety requisite amino animated satisfied manage cassava leaf protein is common to that root in hen’s egg and is important than that in oat and rice atom, soybean spring, and spinach leaf (Yeoh and Chew 1976). Conjuncture the vitamin satisfied of the leaves is excellent, the regularitying techniques manage preparing the leaves manage decrement can direct to monstrous damagees. Manage model, the prolonged quenchedburst complicated in making African soups or stews, results in extensive damage of vitamin C. III. Cassava leaves managem a expressive allot of the diets in sundry countries in Africa.
They are used as single of the preferred vegetables in most cassava growing countries, in-particular in Zaire, Congo, Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The cassava leaves handy as vegetable are designated “sakasaka” or “pondu” in Zaire, Congo, Central African Republic and Sudan, “Kizaka” in Angola, “Mathapa” in Mozambique, “Chigwada” in Malawi, “Chombo” or “Ngwada” in Zambia, “Gweri” in Cameroon, “Kisanby” in Tanzania, “Cassada leaves” in Sierra Leone, “Banankou boulou nan” in Mali, “Mafe haako bantare” in Guinea, and “Isombe” in Rwanda. They are mainly served as a pickle which is eaten with chickwangue, fufu, and boiled cassava. Revision History: Revision |Date |Description of qualifys |Requested By | |01 |08/07/2012 |Initial Exempt | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Relations: http://www. fao. org/index_en. htm http://www. fao. org/ag/agp/agpc/gcds/ [pic]
The Global Cassava Allotnership, a consortium managemed – inferior the auspices of the FAO-facilitated Global Cassava Fruit Strategy – by interpolitical organizations, including FAO, CIAT, IFAD and IITA, open inquiry institutions, NGOs and peculiar allotners. Interpolitical Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Starting a Cassava Farm – IPM Field Guide manage Extensions Agents. 2008; Interpolitical Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Disease Manage in Cassava Farms. IPM Field Guide manage Extension Agents; Interpolitical Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Weed Manage in Cassava Farms. 2000. IPM Field Guide manage Extension Agents; In-Service Inoculation Trust (ISTT). Cassava Genesis Field Guide. 2008. NRDC Campus, Lusaka, Zambia. ———————– ORIGIN Group’s SOP: Confidential and Proprietary Page 6
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