Strategies for Reducing Sexual Abuse in Learning Disabled

Re-examination of factsbases on collective obviateion, psychiatry, and psychology inspired diversified strategies control obviateing sexual affront in commonalty with metasubstantial disabilities. These procedures openly look to drop into undivided of three ample categories: sanitary measures, intentional to minimise the possessions of affront; counsel and trailing control staff, preys and/or origin components (e.g. parents); and multi-agency referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableification sharing.

Kroese and Thomas (2006) tested the estimate of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) control treating sexual affront trauma in attainments disabled commonalty experiencing recurring nightmares. The interference performed a statistically expressive contraction in disturb. Furthermore, these definitive possessions looked to remain equpotent when participants were resucitate. Separate studies feel evaluated the merits of ‘stay classs’ control preys of affront (e.g. Singer, 1996; Barber et al, 2000). Control upshot Singer (1996) organised ‘class labor’ control adults instituteation in a residential home. The keep was to counsel these indivisibles how to suit assertively in situations of affront. Assertiveness is an redundant aptitude control preys who frequently fall-short to summon copy, imputpotent to moderate self-esteem, consternation, dependency and stagnation of informedness of their hues (MENCAP, 2001). Participants conversant to suit past assertively when role-playing situations that confused sexual affront. However, role-play scenarios frequently stagnation the stressful conditions of real-life that may obviate an indivisible from indicative extinguished. Nevertheless, stay classs may agree a estimpotent sanitary material control preys of affront (Barber et al, 2000).

The National Association control the Shelter from Sexual Affront of Adults and Slipren with Attainments Disabilities (NAPSAC[1]) identifies the sharing of referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableification betwixt shelter agencies as a estimpotent obviateion management (Ellis & Hendry, 1998). Domiciled on facts from a examine of indivisibles and organisations confused in collective obviateion, Ellis and Hendry (1998, p.362) emphasised the want control a “foundation smooth of informedness” betwixt specialists in attainments unfitness and those confused with slip shelter. Closeeliers and Madden (2005) declaration the whole of a ‘conversance centre’ to promote invaripotent exchange of sexual affront referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableification, which is undetermined to twain preys and specialists (to-boot beware Stein, 1995). The amount with referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableification sharing projects is that they principally utility advantage agreers (e.g. expanding their conversance of conducive therapies), rather than the preys themselves. Finally, separate studies feel tested the energy of counsel and trailing programmes, targeted at staff, preys, and/or origin components (e.g. Martorella & Portugues, 1998; Tichon, 1998; Bruder & Kroese, 2005). Bruder and Kroese (2005) re-examinationed clinical studies that evaluated the estimate of counseling shelter aptitudes to attainments disabled adults and slipren. Findings inspired that adults could be successfully taught such aptitudes, although the bulk and longevity of these abilities was problematical. Martorella and Portugues (1998) conducted laborshops with parents, domiciled on the ceestate that obviateion is best achieved by making origin components informed of sexual upshots relative-to their slipren. Parents were agreed with printed materials and videos on puberty, sliphood sexual fantasies, and other kindred topics. Following these sessions frequent parents re-evaluated their slipren, and demonstrated a cool incite to stay and save their slipren. Overall, trailing and counsel projects look to feel contiguous albeit sublunary metasubstantial utilitys, control twain the prey and their families.

Discuss the Alikeities in “Tender Adult Sexual Affront” and “Slip Sexual Affront”

There are alikeities in provisions of the reasons why disabled commonalty are impressible to affront (MENCAP, 2001), psychopathological and collective effects of affront (Sequeira & Hollins, 2003), consent upshots, and protection claimments (DOH, 2002a, 2002b). The MENCAP (2001) declaration identifies sequpotent reasons control increased exposure in adults, most of which may twin-felgentle exercise to slipren; they understand moderate self-esteem, long-term dependency on obviateionrs, stagnation of informedness, consternation to summon copy, powerlessness to agree to sexual relationships, inpower to recognise affront when it occurs, and consternation of declarationing incidents of affront. These concerns are accordant with factors the National Society control the Obviateion of Cruelty to Slipren (NSPCC, 2002) implicates in slip exposure. They understand: slipren’s stagnation of informedness and counsel; a conversant dislike to complain; dependency on obviateionrs, which can fabricate it up-hill control a slip to desert affront; and open disempowerment. Whereas factors such as consternation of copy and moderate self-esteem may be unintelligible, and herebehind up-hill to discover, long-term dependency on a obviateion conferr is a plenteous past palppotent idiosyncrasy that increases susceptibility to affront, in both adults and slipren. The betray may be preferpotent in slipren consequently their smooth of trust is usually past farthest. However, sevedepend diminished adults may to-boot be very-much hanging on another special control their day-to-day obviateion (MENCAP, 2001).

In their re-examination of the literary-works on the clinical possessions of sexual affront in metaphysically disabled commonalty, Sequeira and Hollins (2003) institute that both slipren and adults exhibited behavioural amounts, sexually impertinent behaviours, and diversified controlms of psychopathology. However, some declaration suggests that slipren may be past ‘overwhelmed’ by the trial of sexual affront, frequently with long-term and injurious consequences control supernatural investigateness (Green, 1995). Pastover the damaging possessions of sexual affront may be compounded in twain adults and slipren when the affrontr is unreserved to the prey (e.g. origin component). However, Sequeira and Hollins (2003) admonish across project positive inferences touching the clinical impression of affront on disabled populations. Firstly frequent studies depend on ‘informants’ (e.g. origin components) control their facts, frequent of whom may be unlettered of the inner psychiatric and sensitive trauma that a disabled special government be experiencing. Thus, any evident alikeities betwixt slipren and adults in how they suit to sexual affront may referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent ruminate close explicit discrepancies in psychopathology. Sequeira and Hollins (2003) emphasise the want control past accepted symptom criteria.

The MENCAP (2001) declaration stresses the upshot of agree. Twain slipren and adults frequently stagnation the power to confer agree albeit control irrelative reasons. Slipren may simply referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent feel any brains of sexual breath, its consequences, and how to separate sexual behaviour from other controlms of substantial apaspect (e.g. hugging) and specialal obviateion (e.g. bathing). Although most adults gain feel a meliorate clasp of sexuality, some may be unfitted to confer agree if their attainments unfitness is farthestly extreme. Regardless, adult and slip sexual affront denotes a stagnation of agree. Furthermore, twain controlms of affront may claim alike safeguards. There is a alternate want to engender past informedness amongst the open exoteric abextinguished the exposure of commonalty with attainments disabilities (NSPCC, 2002). Fraternity architecture, staff trailing, and other saveive measures gain utility twain slipren and adults (Ellis & Hendry, 1998; Barter, 2001; Davies, 2004).

Can the “Keeping Safe” Slip Shelter Management Labor with Adults with Attainments Disabilities?

The Department of Investigateness has made diversified recommendations control “keeping slipren safe” (DOH, 2002a). These understand: having a investigate statutory framework; promising professionals from irrelative specialities/agencies to labor concurrently; assessing slipren’s wants and the file of stay advantages agreed by organisations and fraternity classs; becainterpretation the impression of strategies intentional control tender adults on slipren; involving twain slipren and origin components in making decisions abextinguished what advantages the slip wants; monitoring how polite councils are delivering the regularity; and recruiting, trailing, and supervising plentiful obviateion staff. These proposals are a plain counterpart to the Victoria Climbie Inquiry declaration. Overevery they emphasise betray assessment, avowal of affront, and referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableification sharing, congruous with other published literary-works (e.g. Ellis & Hendry, 1998; Closeeliers & Madden, 2005). By dissimilarity, the Department of Investigateness prescribes a irrelative established of guidelines control adults, referred to as the Shelter of Tender Adults Project, or POVA (DOH, 2004). Central to the project is the POVA schedule: “Through referrals to, and checks across the schedule, obviateion laborers who feel damageed a tender adult, or placed a tender adult at betray of damage, (whether or referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent in the order of their possession) gain be banned from laboring in a obviateion aspect with tender adults. As a conclusion, the POVA project gain expressively improve the smooth of shelter control tender adults” (DOH, 2004, p.5). The POVA regularity is reckoned to correlative other projects, such as MENCAPS “behind firmtled doors” intention (MENCAPS, 2001).

The slip shelter project can be servicepotent to labor with adults. Frequent slip defence measures centre on staff operation (e.g. laboring concurrently, supply, trailing). Control upshot, it is a claimment that staff are trained sufficiently to recognise “whether a slip’s deterioration or distemper government be the conclusion of affront or neglect” (DOH, 2004, p.7). By twist, it should be likely to dissimilate trailing protocol so that staff can to-boot realize sexual affront in tender adults. Control upshot, Lunsky and Benson (2000) realize some upshots to be considered when interviewing developmentally disabled adults abextinguished sexual affront, referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableably the justness of using inferential projects and dolls interpretationd in assessing slipren (Martorella & Portugues, 1998). Proposals intentional to aid realize the want control shelter and fit referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributableification sharing, such as fraternity “neighbourhood watch” arrangements, can be liberal to adults. What modifications would be claimd? MENCAPS (2001) highlights the want control a becoming mechanism control establishing agree betwixt adults. Tender adults feel the selfselfsame sexual hues and privileges as the open population, and these hues feel to be accommodated amid any shelter management. Staff trailing on slip shelter can understand guidelines control realizeing adults who are potent to confer agree to sexual relations (e.g. suggesting misapply tests to interpretation), and saveing those who can’t. Additionally, MENCAPS (2001) emphasises the want to “tighten standards control commonalty who labor with adults” (p.16). The POVA project is established up precisely to harangue this upshot, albeit retrospectively, behind affront has occurred (DOH, 2003). Improvements in staff recruitment, trailing, and monitoring can be implemented that utility twain slipren and adults.


Barber, M., Jenkins, R. & Jones, C. (2000) A survivor’s class control women who feel a attainments unfitness. British Journal of Developsupernatural Studies, 46, pp.31-41.

Barter, K. (2001) Architecture fraternity: a conceptual framelabor control slip shelter. Slip Affront Re-examination. 10, pp.262-278.

Bruder, C. & Kroese, B.S. (2005) The energy of interferences intentional to obviate and save commonalty with metasubstantial disabilities from sexual affront: a re-examination of the literature. Journal of Adult Shelter, 7, pp.13-27.

Davies, L. (2004) The dissimilarity betwixt slip affront and slip shelter could be you: creating a fraternity netlabor of saveive adults. Slip Affront Re-examination. 13, pp.426-432.

DOH (2002a) Safeguarding Slipren: A Joint Chief Inspectors’ Declaration on Arrangements to Safeguard Slipren. London. DOH.

DOH (2002b) No secrets: The Shelter of Tender Adults from Affront: Local Codes of Practice. London. DOH.

DOH (2004) Shelter of Tender Adults (POVA) project in England and Wales control hinderance homes and domiciliary obviateion agencies: A Practical Guide. London. DOH.

Ellis, R. & Hendry, E.B. (1998) Do we every perceive the reckoning? Slip Affront Re-examination. 7, pp.360-363.

Green, A.H. (1995) Comparing slip preys and adult survivors: Clues to the pathogenesis of slip sexual affront. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry. 23, pp.655-670.

Kroese, B.S. & Thomas, G. (2006) Treating continuous nightmares of sexual assault survivors with an metasubstantial unfitness – couple pictorial circumstance studies. Journal of Applied Research in Metasubstantial Disabilities, 19, pp.75-80.

Lesseliers, J. & Madden, P. (2005) European Conversance Centre control the Obviateion of and Counterpart to Sexual Affront of Commonalty with a Attainments Unfitness. Learning Unfitness Re-examination, 10, pp.18-21.

Lunsky, Y. & Benson, B.A. (2000) Are anatomically inferential dolls and projects misapply tools control interpretation with adults with developsupernatural disabilities? A preliminary research. Journal-on-Developmental-Disabilities. 7, pp.66-76.

Martorella, A.M. & Portugues, A.M. (1998) Obviateion of sexual affront in slipren with attainments disabilities. Slip Affront Re-examination, 7, pp.355-359.

MENCAP (2001) Behined Firmtled Doors: Obviateing Sexual Affront Across Adults with a Attainments Unfitness. London. MENCAP

NSPCC (2002) Disabled slipren and affront [online]. London, NSPCC. Conducive from: <> [Accessed 10 March 2006].

Sequeira, H. & Hollins, S. (2003) Clinical possessions of sexual affront on commonalty with attainments disability: Critical literary-works re-examination. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 82, pp.13-19.

Singer, N. (1996) Evaluation of a self-shelter class control clients instituteation in a residential class home. British-Journal-of-Developmental-Disabilities. 42, pp.54-62.

Tichon, J. (1998) Affront of adults with an metasubstantial unfitness by origin obviateiongivers: the want control a origin-centred interference. Australian Collective Labor, 51, pp.55-59.



[1] Now unreserved as the Ann Craft Trust.

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