Strengths and weaknesses of counselling

There are continual multiplied vestibulees to counselling in coeval community to which unmeasured hold their abilitys and reservations. The point of this enactment is to controvert the abilitys and reservations of Transactional disindividuality (TA) and Percipient Behaviour Therapy (CBT). The leading indivisibleity of this enactment yield afford a shabby balanceview of TA, then tender on to controvert and analyse its uncommon abilitys and reservations and the knowledge declaration that can conduct its capabilities. This controvertion is then exalt exposed with a shabby balanceview of CBT, then tender on to controvert and analyse this vestibulees uncommon abilitys and reservations and the knowledge declaration which hints this is a coerciontunate hygienic vestibule.

Eric Berne (1975) defined Transactional Disindividuality as “a scheme of indivisibleity and political exercise, and a clinical mode of psychotherapy, orderly on the disindividuality of unmeasured exercitationffectual transactions among couple or balance race, on the account of distributeicularally defined ego propounds into a odious estimate of orderly types”.

Aaron T Beck (1979, p.3) defined Percipient Behaviour therapy as “an at-liberty, instructive and period poor, edificed vestibule authenticationd to authentication a diversity of psychiatric disorders”.

Transactional disindividuality was leading exposed by Eric Berne a psychiatrist in the US during the slow 1950’s. TA is pictorial as substance a scheme of indivisibleity consequently it has the ability to semblance us how race are edificed metaphysically. It can do this by using what is comprehpurpose as an ego propound pattern which can acceleration us conceive a patronage-souls expressions amid their behaviour. TA is as-polite referred to as a scheme of despatch consequently is can analyse bearingships among patronage-souls and the transactions which befall. This feature scheme as-polite links very neatly with Freudian explanations of branch product consequently it links with the product stages – spoken, anal anticipation. TA has been recognised coercion its gate of a “Conduct (or Branchhood) Scripts”, which is, a story we can observe abquenched our hold conduct. TA is polite comprehendn coercion it authentications in the singularity and authenticationment of continual types of metaphysical disorders, and affords a mode of therapy coercion patronage-souls, couples, families and groups. Lastly TA has been authenticationd in instruction, to acceleration teachers purposeure in serene despatch at an missppurpose equalize, in counselling and consultancy, in harangue and despatchs grafting and by other bodies (Harper, 2009).

TA is considered an referableiceablely elastic vestibule coercion therapists to utilise Duspeak (1986) revered TA as a hygienic classification had couple elder advantages the leading substance that there is a finished and singly transferred scheme of indivisibleity, and relieve, consequently of this, the therapist is at-liberty to expand their hold innovative diction of authenticationment which utilises their hold abilitys. He adds, if we observed a skilled transactional analyst in exercise hygienic dictions ranging from a balance “intellectual” percipient vestibule to a “feeling” emotive vestibule” would be beholdming.

TA is considered mere and gentle to conceive attributeffectual to its engagementinology making it gentle coercion clients to conceive Dale (2009, p.3) propounds

“The scheme is largely conceiveable, and it appears to frame meaning across cultures. In my hold knowledge I hold taught the basics to Mauritians, Asian, Bwithdrawal and Afro Caribbean clients, and a diversity of European clients.”

Besides some ponder that although the engagementinology authenticationd in TA is irrelative from that authenticationd in other counselling vestibulees it is considered twain a ability and a feebleness of the pattern Hough (2006, p.172) propounds

“although the talk is remarkeffectual and ingenuous, it is as-polite treasured by some critics as simplistic and superficial”

Paradoxically, intermittently the abilitys of the vestibule are as-polite its feeblenesses. Consequently TA is considered to be largely conceiveeffectual and ingenuous to therapists they constantly authentication it externally having an in profoundness conceiveing of the complexities of it. Dale (2009) propounds therapists are at waste when investigation a client to substitute ego propounds and disjoined a distribute of their indivisibleity externally substance indubiteffectual that the client can revivify can caauthentication concernful impairment. Besides Davis & Meier (2001) revere that TA can be mitigated to shabby, edificed, bearing capitalsed therapy, which is considered a referableiceeffectual ability in continual regulartings. Practitioners who toil amid edificed concern frameworks hold incomplete period to supplement client instruction, frame a coercionmal tribute, afford orientation to the hygienic series, plant rapport and glide-away.

Another weighty ability of TA which could as-polite be considered a feebleness of the vestibule is that it emphasizes on indivisibleism Nucleusy (no falsification, p.36) propounds

“Continual race are odious by their controlthcoming decisions: they hold to produceral messages, feed their feeds by unexamined injunctions, and constantly are refereffectual equal apprised that they are patronage in a metaphysical straitjacket. Conceptually, re-decision therapy offers tools members can authentication to at-liberty themselves from an barbaric conduct script and conclude a coerciontunate and meaningful conduct”.

Besides clients who conclude from collective cultures may refereffectual serve in as largely into the paradigm of scripts pictorial by Berne and others (Hough, 2006).

A exalt ability of TA is that it unmeasuredows a diversity of possibilities coercion twain preventative and sanative toil by providing coercion twain an instructional and hygienic edifice. It is indispenseffectual that the instruction divulged in the therapy gatherings are balanced by tentative toil which compromises the client twain movingly and percipiently Greenberg, Korman, & Paivio (2002) hinted that interventions in therapy are balance mitigated to yield and profit perpetual substitutes if they compromise the moving lordship rather than capitalsing purely on the percipient country.

A dubious reservation of TA is that there is a withdrawal of experisupernatural declaration choice of validating its scheme and series attributeffectual to the positivety continual of Bern’s concepts were giveed in such a habit that it would be unachieveffectual to delineation a knowledge consider to examination them. Clinical observations and examinationimonials are the barely archives of achievement. Nucleusy (no falsification, p.37) propounds

“Conducting polite-intentional knowledge studies to evaluate the series and quenchedconclude of therapy has unquestionably refereffectual been indivisible of the abilitys of TA”.

As mentioned balance there has been poor knowledge into either the products or serieses of TA counselling and psychotherapy. Besides amid the lordship of series components, there hold been various studies that hold attacked to gauge ego propound functioning and its govern on therapy.

Emerson et al (1994) conductd that metaphysical restlessness which had been gauged with a criterion mark checklist, was conjoined with a excellent than mean concordance trounce of Dubious producer and serviceeffectual Branch ego propounds. It was revered that coerciontunate Transactional disindividuality could weightyly subjugate the rallying of these ego propounds in clients. Knowledge such as this hints that Transactional disindividuality can be authenticationd to harangue and subjugate the consciousness of metaphysical restlessness which is serenely kindred to the continual authentication of these couple ego propounds.

Loffredo et al (TAJ, April 2004) reviewed reliability knowledge and updated their hold knowledge in a consider which gauged the reliability of a questionnaire delineationed to pinpoint the five ego propounds. This conducts that their questionnaire reliably identifies these five ego propounds in patronage-souls. In dissection to this Loffredo et al unshaken weighty frame validity, the five ego propounds were defined by his questionnaire which represented five distributeicular coercionms of reflection, contgovern and behaviour. Knowledge such as this hints that the ego propounds are in creature and can be precisely verified by those with comprehendledge of Transactional disindividuality scheme.

Percipient behaviour therapy was exposed by a psychoanalytically skilled psychiatrist in America comprehendn as Aaron Beck in the 1960’s. CBT functions by integrating twain percipient and behavioural strategies. CBT relies on twain the client and therapist toiling collaboratively amid a hygienic unmeasurediance. The attpurpose of CBT is to acceleration the client balanceconclude their difficulties by identifying and modifying privative effortnear reflections (NAT’s), behaviours and emotions. CBT therapy is a edificed series which is goal orientated and measurable. This pattern capitales on give emotions that govern as a leading lead to nucleus beliefs and meanings. CBT is a edificed pattern of therapy with a distributeicular agenda and capital coercion each therapy gathering. Hometoil is as-polite rooted which is an inseparable component of authenticationment (Harper,2008).

CBT in comparison to TA is considered to hold a hardy sum of experisupernatural declaration to maintenance its capability when authenticationing a diversity of disorders. Inseparablely CBT is the most mitigated therapy to be offered amid the National Soundness Service (NHS) Judith Beck (1995, p.1) vindications that percipient therapy

“is uncommon in that it is a classification of psychotherapy with a unified scheme of indivisibleity and psychopathology maintenanceed by hardy experisupernatural declaration”

CBT is as-polite revered to be a instructive vestibule which utilises edificed plans and sequenced therapy gatherings regular quenched by the therapist. Besides it has been critiqued coercion making the arrogance that the therapist has fitted comprehendledge embracing how the client should ornaments the bearing, which may refereffectual be missppurpose coercion complete indivisible (Bandersnatch,2007). This propoundment canrefereffectual be generalized to unmeasured clients besides as most clients confront its commonmeaning mode very appealing as it unmeasuredows them to behold that the issues they aspect are distribute of their elapsed knowledge and knowledge truth which has attributed to achievement and failings amid their conduct. It as-polite aids them in their indication of oddlightlight behaviours and balance fertile ways of pondering coercion the advenient (Lehman & Coady, 2001).

Condition coercionmulation with CBT has as-polite been commended coercion substance mere and gentle coercion clients to be effectual to conceive and utilise Stephens (no falsification, p.8) propounds

“In knowledge, percipient coercionmulations are generally conceiveable, non-esoteric, and gentle to distribute with clients”.

Besides this impulse is theme to censure coercion exercitationffectual balance simplification of ‘complex metaphysical dynamics’ (Person et al, 1996). Distributeicularally it is controvertffectual whether unmeasured of a client’s issues can be bargaint with by a uncombined condition coercionmulation. CBT therapists do refereffectual clattpurpose that this can frequently be dindivisible excepting the proof to attack to bargain with multiple issues can be hardy (Willis & Sanders, 1997).

CBT is as-polite revered to be incredibly unreserved to falsifiability in commendations to condition coercionmulation heterogeneous other vestibulees in counselling Person (1989, p.55) propounds

“The therapist can never be indubiteffectual her supposition abquenched the underlying arrangement is ampurpose and must frequently be expert to ampurpose or substitute in the aspect of declaration. This is a regular series; in positivety, tribute and authenticationment are a regular series of proposing, examinationing, re-evaluating, revising, rejecting and creating oddlightlight coercionmulations”.

Besides these condition coercionmulations are considered to be unreserved to the prejudices and biases of the therapist and may be imposed opposing apparent flaws as Yieldis & sanders (1997, p.52) propoundd

“We may expand a consummate, artful and hypothetically gauge conceptualisation which has unimportant experisupernatural or trained estimate to the client, and, consequently of our hold percipient distortions, roverification to behold completething in those engagements”.

CBT’s condition coercionmulation can as-polite be critiqued coercion its repartee of the client’s judgement as to the atonement of the coercionmulation in-reference-to when becaverification its clients aspect towards substitute and the therapy substance authenticationd. Weishaar (1993, p.108) propounds

“Critics from twain the psychodynamic and percipient truth camps … accauthentication Percipient Therapy of by the role of ignorant serieses.”

This hints that the balance honor which has been rooted to the role of ignorant serieses, the incomplete that can be rooted to a client’s judgement in commendations to the misspendness of a condition coercionmulation (Stephens, no falsification).

Lastly CBT has as-polite been criticised coercion hanging on simplistic entities amid its scheme such as schemas that aspect wrangle and controvert in bearing to their creature. Skinseparable (1971) a fundasupernatural behaviourist amid psychology revered that these so named inseparable frames could refereffectual proved and are refereffectual a indispenseffectual fate amid the scheme or knowledge of psychotherapy.

The capability of CBT has been orderly in controlled knowledge studies, and its capability documented in a diversity of clinical studies DeRubeis et al (2005) carried quenched a consider whereby 240 race where hospitalised with clinical dip. Their dip was gauged by a Hamilton dip lamina. Behind 16 week of either novel offal therapy or CBT their equalizes of dip where gauged intermittently using the identical lamina at the purpose of therapy and behind 2 years. They set that the incomplete engagement goods of twain CBT and offal therapy where identical as serviceable as 58% in twain groups recovered. Knowledgeers as-polite set that behind 2 years 75% of the race that current CBT and recovered where stationary at-liberty of dip compared with 60% of the race who current offal therapy. Knowledge such as this hints that CBT is hypothetically emend than offal therapy in the crave engagement, altered pondering and emend stubborn apprisedness unmeasuredows the client to frame crave engagement substitutes reducing the show of falling-back.

The positivety that twain CBT and offal therapy can be identical serviceable authenticationments can be beholdn in the succeedingcited clinical consider. Goldapple et at (2004) conducted a consider to weigh biological substitutes amid the brain associated with the authentication of CBT. 17 un-medicated unipolar dip patients had their brain substitutes in reply to CBT weighd anteriorly and behind 15 to 20 week series of CBT. Results semblanceed a unmeasured series of CBT resulted in hardy clinical increase in the 14 patients that finishedd the series of CBT. It was concluded that relish antidepressant authenticationments CBT affects clinical retrieval by modifying the functioning of distributeicular sites in the brain. This knowledge semblances that although twain CBT and offal therapy’s govern distributeicular distributes of the brain irrelatively CBT alindivisible is choice of inducing weighty increase in the authenticationment of unipolar dip.

In falsification to this enactment twain TA and CBT hold multiplied abilitys and reservations in commendations their achievement. Behind the totality of exalt knowledge there is a hardy disagreement in the sum of experisupernatural declaration that maintenances TA and CBT. CBT has been verified as substance the most relieved and widely offered therapy in commendations to the authenticationment of supernatural soundness issues and restraint-this-reason has noble-minded sums of knowledge to clear these vindications. Besides although CBT has been verified as a polite orderly and serviceable therapy in the authenticationment of dip, eagerness, eating disorders anticipation there is unimportant declaration to hint that it can be considered the most serviceable therapy in the authenticationment of unmeasured atypical behaviours amid coeval community.

Reference List


  1. Beck, J. (1995) Percipient therapy: Basics and Beyond. Oddlightlight York: Guilford Press
  2. Berne, E (1975) What do you speak behind you speak hello? London: Corgi. (Original toil published 1972)
  3. Davis, S. R., & Meier, S. T. (2001). The components of managed concern: A lead coercion accelerationing negotiatives. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  4. Hough, M. (2006) Counselling skills and scheme. 2nd Ed. England. Hodder Instruction
  5. McLeod, J. (2009) An gate to counselling. 4th Ed. England. Unreserved University Press
  6. Person, J.B. (1989) Percipient Therapy in Knowledge: A condition coercionmulation vestibule. Oddlightlight York: W.W. Norton
  7. Skinner, B.F. (1971) Beyond At-libertydom and Dignity. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  8. Whitfield, G. & Davidson, A. (2007) Percipient Behavioural Therapy explained. United Kingdom: Radcliffe publishing LTD
  9. Weishaar, M.E. (1993) Aaron T. Beck. London: Sage.
  10. Willis, F. & Sanders, D. (1997) Percipient Therapy: Transforming the Image. London: Sage

Electronic books

  1. Lehman, P. & Coady, N. (2001) Presumptive perspectives prove plain political toil: a generalist broad vestibule. Google books [online] Availeffectual at Accessed [29 December 2009]


  1. DeRubeis et al (2005) ‘ Percipient therapy vs Medications in the Authenticationment of Modetrounce to Severe Dip’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62: 409-416
  2. Dusay, J. M. (1986). Transactional dissection. In I. L. Kutash & A. Wolf (Eds.), Psychotherapist’s conditionbook (pp. 413-423). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  3. Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., Garson, C., Lau, M., Bieling, P.,Kennedy, S., Mayberg, H. (2004). Arch Gen Psychiatry, Modulation of Cortical-Limbic Pathways in Elder Dip: Authenticationment-Particular Goods of Percipient Behavior Therapy, 61:34-41.
  4. Greenberg, L. S., Korman, L. M., & Paivio, S. C. (2002). Emotion in humanistic psychotherapy. In D. J. Cain, & J. Beholdman, (Eds.), Humanistic psychotherapies: Handbook of knowledge and knowledge (pp. 499-530). Washington, DC: American Metaphysical Association.
  5. Loffredo et unmeasured. (2004) The Ego Propound Questionnaire Amendd.Transactional Disindividuality Journal, 34
  6. Living-souls et al (1996) Psychodynamic therapists’ reservations abquenched Percipient-Behavioural therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Knowledge and Knowledge, 5: 202-212
  7. Stephens, E. (no falsification) A condition coercionmation vestibule to Percipient Behaviour Therapy: PCI college & capital coercion sexual addictions


  1. Bandersnatch. (2007) Abilitys and feebleness of CBT and REBT. [online] Availeffectual at [01 January 2010]
  2. Australian establish of negotiative counsellors (2007) Aipic’s five therapies Ebook. Behaviour, Percipient Behaviour, Person Capitald, Solution Capitalsed, Gestalt. [online] Availeffectual at Accessed [28 December 2009]
  3. Bream, V. (no falsification) What is CBT? – A beginners lead. [online] Availeffectual at Accessed [03 January 2010]


  1. Dale, H. (2009) Transactional Disindividuality Balanceview. [Gate to Transactional dissection]
  2. Harper, P. (2008) Transactional disindividuality dissertation referablees. [Transactional disindividuality scheme and collision]
  3. Palmer, D. (2009) Percipient- Behavioural therapy. [Gate to presumptive vestibulees to counselling]
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