The Focus Of The Foreign Affairs Politics Essay

The Ministry of Overseas Affairs or Wisma Putra as it's generally identified has been mandated to pursue the nation’s international coverage in accordance with the Federal Structure of Malaysia with the target of defending and selling the nation’s curiosity on the worldwide degree. Malaysia’s international coverage is premised on establishing shut and pleasant relations with international locations in the neighborhood of countries.  It'll proceed to respect the inner affairs of different nations and advocate a coverage of non-interference recognizing the sovereignty of countries.

Since Malaysia’s independence in 1957 until at this time, the imaginative and prescient of our international coverage stays constant that's to safeguard Malaysia’s nationwide pursuits in addition to contribute in direction of a simply and equitable group of countries.  That is achieved via upholding the nation’s sovereignty and selling common peace; fostering pleasant relations with international international locations and defending Malaysia’s pursuits within the regional and worldwide area.  In different phrases, Malaysia will proceed to consolidate its relations with different international locations and worldwide organisations, each on the regional and worldwide degree.

In step with the goals of selling and defending Malaysian nationwide curiosity overseas, the Ministry has established a complete of 105 missions in 83 international locations and appointed 53 Honorary Consuls who present help and help in selling Malaysia’s curiosity overseas.

Because the independence of Malaya in 1957, the nation’s international coverage has gone via a number of phases of serious transition with completely different emphases beneath 5 earlier premierships.  The coverage has been largely decided by the established nationwide traits and succession of political management in addition to by the dynamic regional and worldwide atmosphere.

Tunku Abdul Rahman, the primary Prime Minister of Malaysia held a markedly anti-Communist and pro-Western posture because the period noticed the nation threatened by the Communist insurgency.  The international coverage throughout Tunku’s time needed to consider the bipolar energy battle between opposing concepts of democracy and communism. Below the stewardship of Malaysia’s second premier Tun Abdul Razak, Malaysia’s international coverage started to shift in direction of non-alignment and internationalism with Malaysia becoming a member of the Organisation of Islamic Convention (OIC) and Non-Aligned Motion (NAM).

A interval of consolidation ensued beneath Tun Hussein Onn with ASEAN turning into the cornerstone of Malaysia’s international coverage following the collapse of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh Metropolis) in 1975, the withdrawal of the US army presence from Southeast Asia and the invasion of Kampuchea (now Cambodia) by Vietnam.



Through the premiership of Tun Dr. Mahathir in 1981, Malaysia started opening its doorways to foster relations with extra nations and have become a logo of a rising creating nation.  Below Tun Mahathir’s tenure, the nation’s international coverage started adopting a a lot better financial orientation within the nation’s exterior relations whereas championing the rights, pursuits and aspirations of creating international locations.  This strategy led to the advocacy of the South-South Cooperation, a extra proactive position within the G-77, the institution of the G-15 and noticed the ‘Look East Coverage’ being instituted.  This shift to the East tremendously influenced Malaysia’s financial growth.  Malaysia turned the voice of the creating world and was a job mannequin for a lot of creating international locations because it grow to be well-known for its lively stance on the UN and different worldwide conferences.  Malaysia’s participation in peacekeeping missions beneath the UN can also be a sworn statement of the nation’s seriousness in instilling the desire of the worldwide group.  Since 1960, Malaysia has dedicated troops to Republic of Congo, Bosnia Herzegovina, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Western Sahara, Iraq, Timor Leste and Lebanon.

The fifth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi continued to make sure that Malaysia was lively within the worldwide area.  Throughout his tenure, Malaysia performed an instrumental position within the formulation and adoption of the ASEAN Constitution which has been ratified by all ASEAN member states and subsequently entered into pressure on 15th December 2008. Throughout this era, Malaysia was additionally lively in increasing the main target of OIC from being an organisation centered solely on political points into one which focuses on the socio-economic growth of Islamic international locations.  The Islam Hadhari idea which promotes a type of civilisational Islam was additionally launched by Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi and was accepted and recognised by the OIC member states on the third Particular Summit of OIC at Makkah in December 2005.

Below the management of Prime Minister YAB Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak, Malaysia will proceed to venture a forward-looking and pragmatic international coverage while persevering with to facilitate commerce, appeal to international funding in addition to venture Malaysia as a steady and peaceable nation. Upon taking workplace in April 2009, the Prime Minister additionally confused that Malaysia’s international coverage beneath his administration can be formed considerably by the 1Malaysia: Individuals First, Efficiency Now idea. Among the many key parts of the 1Malaysia idea is in realising the energy of Malaysia lies in its variety.  This idea bodes effectively with the primary imaginative and prescient of Malaysia’s Overseas Coverage that's to guard and promote pursuits overseas and on the identical time responsibly and successfully contribute in direction of the constructing of a good and simply world.  Dato’ Sri Najib believes that the interconnectedness of countries on the planet signifies that Malaysia would profit in making use of 1Malaysia in its efforts in diplomacy and international relations. Synonymous with the 1Malaysia idea, Malaysia will proceed to take care of shut relations with all international locations on the planet and can proceed to work with like-minded nations in pursuing nationwide curiosity.

YAB PM additionally launched the Authorities Transformation Programme (GTP) that recognized Key Outcomes Space (KRAs) and Key Efficiency Indicators (KPIs) of the Ministry as a promise of dedication by the Authorities to the rakyat.  In step with this, the Ministry has recognized 14 Key Efficiency Indicators to measure the success of the Ministry.


The KRAs of the Ministry are as follows:

a.      Safety and promotion of Malaysia’s pursuits bilaterally, regionally and internationally via proactive diplomacy;

b.      Realisation of an ASEAN Neighborhood by 2015 by way of the ASEAN Political Safety Neighborhood Blueprint, ASEAN Financial Neighborhood Blueprint and ASEAN Social Cultural Blueprint;

c.      Enhancing Malaysia’s standing within the worldwide group significantly within the framework of 1Malaysia in an ever altering geopolitical state of affairs; and

d.      Provision of immediate and efficient companies regionally and overseas.


Malaysia has additionally maintained wonderful relations with different international locations, bilaterally and multilaterally via present regional and worldwide mechanisms of ASEAN, UN and different organisations which we're a member of.

Malaysia’s international coverage is structured upon a framework of bilateralism, regionalism and multilateralism the place its outreach is likening to a sample of concentric circles.  ASEAN types the core precedence of Malaysia’s present international coverage, in consideration of our neighbours as our closest allies.  Wanting additional afield, as a rustic with a powerful Muslim majority, Malaysia additionally provides significance to the solidarity of the Ummah and the spirit of cooperation among the many Organisation of Islamic Convention (OIC).  Malaysia’s standing as a creating nation makes it crucial for the nation to have interaction actively within the Non-Aligned Motion (NAM), the Commonwealth, Group of Seventy Seven (G77), Creating Eight (D8), Asia Center East Dialogue (AMED), Far East Asia Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC), Indian Ocean Rim Affiliation for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), Asia Europe Assembly (ASEM) and Asia Pacific Financial Cooperation (APEC).  No much less necessary is the nation’s continued lively participation within the Commonwealth, the United Nations and different worldwide organisations. 

By these organisations, Malaysia has sought to advertise the South-South Cooperation among the many creating international locations and the Muslim world.  Malaysia additionally advocates the “Prosper thy neighbour” coverage to reinforce financial relations and cooperation with its neighbouring international locations via Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-the Philippines East ASEAN Development Space (BIMP-EAGA), Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Development Triangle (IMTGT) and different entities.

Malaysia will proceed to play a major position within the numerous multilateral points that have an effect on our pursuits.  These points embody disarmament, counter terrorism, trafficking in individuals, local weather change and environmental points.   As a member of the UN, Malaysia is a agency believer of worldwide peace and safety and an upholder of worldwide regulation. 


Malaysia’s election because the President of United Nations Financial and Social Council (ECOSOC) for 2010 and the Chairmanship of the Board of Governors of the Worldwide Atomic Vitality Company (IAEA) have been an extra testimony of Malaysia’s optimistic worldwide picture.

Malaysia may also proceed to have interaction with like-minded nations, each within the area and past in making certain its sovereignty and financial effectively being are preserved and guarded.  Malaysia will proceed with the rules of engagement and cooperation somewhat than isolationism and unilateral motion. Commerce and funding alternatives will proceed to be explored with our conventional buying and selling companions and on the identical time to develop strategic partnerships for commerce and funding with international locations within the Center East, Africa, Latin America and different elements of Asia.

Within the decade main as much as 2020, Malaysia must cope with nice adjustments within the international atmosphere while bettering and upgrading the nation’s home circumstances.  In recognising this problem, it's important that Malaysia’s international coverage continues to deal with defending nationwide pursuits whereas responsibly and successfully contributing in direction of the constructing of a good and simply world.

The basic rules of sovereign equality, mutual respect for territorial integrity, peaceable settlement of disputes in addition to mutual profit in relations are the guiding rules that will proceed to information Malaysia’s relations with different international locations.   These rules have stood the check of time. Certainly, our steadfast adherence to those rules, supported by a constant international coverage, has established for Malaysia a reputable picture within the eyes of the worldwide group.



Implementing international coverage is a fancy and difficult process. With the dynamic atmosphere of world politics, the Ministry of Overseas Affairs must be continually conscious of adjustments and be capable of successfully reply to make sure that Malaysia’s sovereignty and nationwide pursuits are adequately protected and Malaysia’s views and positions are duly articulated within the worldwide area.

The Ministry will coordinate and work intently with related Ministries and Companies to determine workable phrases of reference in implementing Malaysia’s nationwide pursuits and to coordinate advertising and marketing and branding methods for Malaysia overseas.

Within the formulation of international coverage, each nation has its personal goal. Within the case of Malaysia, it is so simple as the pursuit of Malaysia’s nationwide curiosity on the worldwide degree.

The Malaysian authorities will attempt to make sure that Malaysia continues to play an lively position in worldwide relations for the advantage of the nation. Principal emphasis within the pursuit of Malaysia’s international coverage goals embody:

Sustaining peaceable relations with all international locations no matter its ideology and political system;

Adopting an impartial, non-aligned, and principled stance in regional and worldwide diplomatic affairs;

Forging shut relations and financial partnerships with all nations, significantly with ASEAN and different regional mates;

Selling peace and stability within the area via capability constructing and battle decision measures;

Taking part in an influential management position as Chair of the ASEAN, Non-aligned Motion (NAM) and Group of Islamic Convention (OIC) (As we did in the previous few years);

Collaborating actively and meaningfully within the United Nations, particularly within the efforts to finish injustice and oppression, and to uphold worldwide regulation; and

Projecting Malaysia as a number one instance of a tolerant and progressive Islamic nation.


  Malaysia’s international coverage is principally an extension of Malaysia’s home coverage. It's designed to defend and promote the nation’s nationwide, political, safety, financial and different very important pursuits. It's geared in direction of selling a peaceable regional and worldwide atmosphere, which might give Malaysia house to realize all its nationwide goals with out disruption from exterior threats.

  Regardless of the range of views relating to the notion and clarification of international coverage, no international coverage will be formulated in a vacuum. It should serve to perform in a dynamic atmosphere. Malaysia’s international coverage isn't any exception. Numerous geographical, historic, social and political determinants helped shape the character of Malaysia’s international coverage and the conduct of the nation’s worldwide relations.

  Our international coverage seeks to advertise mutual tolerance and cooperation amongst all international locations that make up the material of worldwide group. To this, Malaysia pursues an impartial, principled and pragmatic international coverage which rests on the values of peace, humanity, justice, and equality.

Malaysia’s international coverage can also be premised on the rules of respect for the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference within the affairs of different nations, peaceable settlement of disputes, peaceable co-existence and mutual profit in relations.

Because of globalization and the rise of highly effective non-state actors, corresponding to Multinational Companies (MNCs), non-governmental organizations, and a wide range of transnational teams, it's crucial for small nation states to cooperate much more intently. To this, Malaysia maintains pleasant diplomatic, and commerce relations with many international locations all through the world.

  As a buying and selling nation, we advocate a multilateral rule-based international buying and selling system which might promote and safeguard the pursuits of all international locations, whether or not developed or creating, in a good and equitable method. On this respect, Malaysia has lengthy advocated the financial precept of “prosper-thy-neighbor” and never “beggar-thy-neighbor”. We imagine that the worldwide financial infrastructure must be that “prosperity will beget prosperity.”



 Malaysia’s international coverage is guided by three standards:

a) First, it should be a CREDIBLE coverage:

Exudes belief and confidence from different nations. On this regard, it needs to be based mostly on sure       internationally cherished rules.

      Serves the nation’s finest curiosity and stay a accountable member of the worldwide group.       


b) Second, it should be an ENLIGHTENED coverage:

Takes care of the curiosity of its residents above all else.

    Brings worldwide recognition and admiration for Malaysia and  permits Malaysians to be good residents of the 



c) Third, it should be a CONSISTENT AND COHERENT coverage:

 Makes Malaysia a suitable and dependable accomplice in interstate affairs.

Succeeds in making Malaysia the popular model title in worldwide relations.


  Overseas coverage shouldn't be static. Its formulation is basically a dynamic course of. Therefore, through the years, our international coverage has advanced, taking account of the change in management in addition to developments within the ever-changing international political and financial landscapes. Furthermore, the appearance of globalization and the transformation of interstate relations led to by new and fast adjustments in info applied sciences essentially signifies that our international coverage needs to be adjusted and tremendous tuned to fulfill new challenges in a globalised world.

The fashion and approaches in enunciating Malaysia’s international coverage might differ consistent with the character of every previous and current prime minister of Malaysia. A vital examination of Malaysia’s international coverage since 1957 would present its regular evolution characterised by notable adjustments in emphasis, which occurred with the change in Malaysia’s political stewardship. Briefly;

 a) Within the interval 1957-1969, our nation has simply gained its independence. Throughout this put up independence interval, beneath our first prime minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, our international coverage was geared in direction of the survival of our newly impartial nation. Our international coverage then was markedly anti-Communist and pro-western in posture with shut hyperlinks to the Commonwealth. We have been additionally a powerful opponent of apartheid. Our posture in direction of regional cooperation additionally started to take root with the start of ASA (1960), MAPHILINDO (1963) and ASEAN (1967).

b) Within the interval 1970 -1976, beneath Tun Abdul Razak, as a member of the Organisation of Islamic Convention (OIC), Malaysia started to determine itself as a “Muslim nation.” The seek for new mates considerably elevated the significance of NAM to Malaysia. We turned markedly non-aligned and postured in direction of neutrality, peaceable co-existence and independence. We additionally started to distance ourselves from main powers, put sturdy emphasis on regionalism and developed contacts and diplomatic relations with communist international locations. Investments from aside from British sources started to be additionally welcomed. 

c) A interval of consolidation ensued beneath Tun Hussein Onn (1976-1981) with ASEAN turning into the cornerstone of Malaysia’s international coverage following the collapse of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh Metropolis) in 1975, the withdrawal of the US army presence from Southeast Asia and the invasion of Kampuchea (now Cambodia) by Vietnam. The First ASEAN Summit was held and Malaysia signed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Bali in 1976. Additional emphasis on independence, non-alignment and equidistance from the key powers was additionally made.

d) A extra dramatic shift in emphasis occurred when Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohammad took over because the fourth Prime Minister in 1981. Malaysia’s international coverage stance started to take a a lot better financial orientation than ever earlier than, coupled with a powerful and nationalistic defence of the rights, pursuits and aspirations of creating international locations and the advocacy of south-south co-operation. Tun Dr. Mahathir’s premiership noticed the pursuit of quite a few new initiatives corresponding to:


Antarctica because the Frequent Heritage of Mankind.

The Look East Coverage (LEP).

Championing of the reason for creating international locations on main social points like atmosphere, human rights and democracy.

With the appearance of globalization, Malaysians recognized each the helpful and opposed affect of globalization to the creating international locations.

Professional-active and passionate strategy on Apartheid and Palestinian points.

Islamic Unity – Chairmanship and internet hosting of the 10th OIC Summit, internet hosting of 1st Expo OIC, formation of D-Eight.

Worldwide peace and safety – Malaysia’s membership in UNSC, peacekeeping position in plenty of international locations corresponding to Cambodia, Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Namibia and East Timor. Malaysia additionally actively championed towards selectivity, double requirements and pre-emptive motion outdoors the ambit of the UN.

Terrorism – Malaysia solid sturdy regional and worldwide cooperation in combating terrorism, strongly advocated towards profiling by faith or ethnicity, proposed multifaceted strategy in combating terrorism together with figuring out and eliminating the basis causes, hosted OIC Overseas Ministers’ Assembly on Terrorism in 2002, established SEARCCT to primarily deal with coaching and capability constructing.

Opening of New Frontiers:

Energetic bilateral engagements with African, Latin American and Japanese Europe international locations, significantly in commerce, funding and switch expertise within the spirit of South-South Cooperation. Consists of opening of Diplomatic Missions and extension of Malaysian Technical Cooperation Program (MTCP) in these international locations.

Financial Orientation:

East Asia Financial Cooperation (from EAEG to EAEC to ASEAN +three).

Regional Improvement Cooperation – Development Triangle idea corresponding to IMTGT, IMSGT, BIMP-EAGA.

Group of 15 (G15) – first advocated by Malaysia.

Financial diplomacy – reverse funding’s ‘prosper thy neighbor’s, South-South cooperation, MIGHT, Langkawi Worldwide Dialogue (LID), South Africa Worldwide Dialogue (SAID).

e) Within the interval 2003  and onwards, beneath the management of Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, international coverage initiatives have been additional refined and fine- tuned to venture:

Pragmatic response in assembly the present geopolitical and financial challenges.

Extra subtle articulation of Malaysia’s views.

Substance as a dynamic extension to present insurance policies.

Influential management position as Chair of the Non-Aligned Motion (NAM), the Organisation of Islamic Convention (OIC) and ASEAN; and

Malaysia as a number one instance of a tolerant and progressive Islamic Nation – Islam Hadhari

The evolution of the nation’s international coverage beneath successive prime ministers displays a realistic response to the geopolitical and financial adjustments of their occasions. To be frequently related to the nation’s wants, international coverage can't stay static.

However while adjustments in emphasis have grow to be a common function of Malaysian international coverage, continuity has additionally been evident. Each the change and continuity mark a better degree of confidence and maturing of the nation within the conduct of its worldwide affairs. Certainly, in some ways Malaysia’s management position has been acknowledged on a number of problems with deep curiosity to the creating world.

  As a buying and selling nation, we're very a lot depending on a peaceable worldwide atmosphere for our effectively being. Naturally, our international coverage needs to be oriented to permit for a better deal with financial diplomacy. Prior to now, after we have been producing primarily uncooked supplies for the world, Malaysia needed to compete with solely a handful of nations.

However now, when now we have grow to be an industrialized buying and selling nation, now we have no selection however to work more durable, to compete higher and to seek out new markets for our items and companies. We should discover higher methods to do enterprise with the surface world. We have to discover niches wherein now we have a aggressive edge.

  In the direction of this finish, Malaysia has carried out plenty of insurance policies which have a powerful international coverage element that can contribute to the creation of a powerful, dynamic and resilient financial system. These insurance policies embody amongst others:






• Langkawi Worldwide Dialogue


One vital phenomenon that can affect strongly on Malaysia’s international coverage as we transfer ahead is globalization. Our biggest problem can be to extract the very best from the method of globalization and to present our greatest to the system. And in return to contribute in direction of making the world a way more peaceable and equitable place to stay in, to offer management inside our area and to reveal exemplary and accountable membership of the worldwide group.

On the political entrance, we see the tip of the chilly conflict. But the world at this time isn't any safer than we had been led to imagine. The so-called pleasant international village has not come about. Outdated conflicts both refuse to die or just have a method of popping out of their graves to hang-out us. Within the meantime, new conflicts, at occasions a lot bloodier and brutal than the outdated ones, proceed to emerge and rage or stay unresolved. Added to this, two different problems with nice concern additionally stay, particularly terrorism which proceed to threaten

Terrorism which proceed to threaten the lives and property of harmless victims; and

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction which brings fourth the prospect of nuclear, chemical, and organic warfare.

It is necessary; subsequently, that our international coverage be geared in direction of making certain that an increasing number of nations signal and ratify the related worldwide conventions such because the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Complete Take a look at Ban Treaty (CTBT), Organic Weapons Conference (BWC), Chemical Weapons Conference (CWC), and the Conference on Land Mines (CLM).

The financial dimension of globalization has been much more disappointing. The monetary disaster that descended upon East Asia in 1997 led to not solely social distress and financial catastrophe however political instability as effectively. Large Unemployment, unfavorable development, inventory market crashes and extreme forex devaluation have pulled down hundreds of thousands of individuals under the poverty strains. And now, we're anxiously watching the consequences of the doable financial meltdown following the worldwide monetary disaster.

The severity of the scenario requires the entire enterprise of financial globalization and monetary and commerce liberalization to be critically addressed. That is one other largest international coverage problem for Malaysia. Malaysia will proceed to press for the reforming the worldwide monetary structure that's so vulnerable to speculative manipulations and continuously extreme fluctuation.

Malaysia’s activism on the worldwide entrance has in fact attracted consideration and response from numerous quarters. Till just lately, Malaysia had been the goal for criticism for being “too vocal”. However that is one thing that we have to absorb our personal stride if Malaysia is to be proactive on the international degree.

Our international coverage rules have stood the check of time. Certainly, our steadfast adherence to those rules, supported by a constant international coverage, has established for Malaysia sure credibility within the eyes of the worldwide group.

Malaysia’s initiatives at numerous regional and worldwide fora have put the nation on the world map.

Elevated financial prosperity and political stability has the truth is enabled Malaysia to carve its personal area of interest within the worldwide scene.

Making its presence felt has allowed Malaysia to train some affect in setting the worldwide agenda.

Being much less depending on international assist and help, Malaysia has been in a position to communicate up on points that different creating international locations really feel constrained to voice for worry of retribution by the key, significantly western, powers.

The years forward subsequently would see our international coverage specifically oriented in direction of not solely making certain Malaysia’s home success but in addition internationally, as a geopolitical and financial participant on the international degree.

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